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  • Wiley-Blackwell  (47)
  • Blackwell Publishing Ltd  (10)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1365-246X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: The remanent magnetization of Palaeozoic and Mesozoic carbonates from the Tibetan Sedimentary Series (TSS) of the Manang area north of the Annapurna Range (north central Nepal) has been investigated. the TSS forms part of the tectonic unit between the Indian-Eurasian plate boundary in the north and the Main Central Thrust (MCT) in the south.Apart from a present field direction, three remanence components have been separated: a normal polarity, post-folding remanence (negative fold test) is carried by pyrrhotite (the core corrected mean direction for five sites with 47 specimens from Silurian/Devonian rocks is decl. = 312.9°, incl. = 58.3°α95= 17.6°, K= 19.8). the origin of this component is not understood.A more precisely determined, reversed polarity, post-folding remanence (99 per cent negative fold test) is also carried by pyrrhotite (the core corrected mean direction for 12 sites with 229 specimens from Carboniferous/Triassic rocks is decl. = 196.4°, incl. = -65.9°, α95= 3.2°, k = 183).One site of Lower Carinan age shows—in addition to the pyrrhotite component— a second, stable remanence direction carried by magnetite. the fold test is 99 per cent positive and there is a high probability that the remanence is of detrital origin (the bedding corrected direction for one site with 40 specimens is decl. =334.3°, incl. = -54.1°, α95= 4.2°, k = 30.2, palaeolatitude 34.6°S).The direction of the magnetite component coincides with other Triassic palaeodirection data from the literature and the inclination suggests a palaeoposition of the TSS at the northern margin of India at this time. the northern extent of India in the Triassic cannot be reconstructed from the data because of the strong anticlockwise rotation (48°) of stable India since this time.The inclination of the reverse polarity pyrrhotite component is 19° steeper than expected from the maximum northern position of the area. This suggests a regional northward tilt along the MCT which is supported by steep inclinations found in other areas.Declination data for the reverse polarity pyrrhotite component and for the magnetite component deviate clockwise from expected values for the area by 23°-34° (calculated from the Indian APWP). Utilizing Klootwijk, Conaghan & Powell's (1985) rotational underthrusting model, the minimum magnitude of continental underthrusting between the TSS and stable India at the longitude of central Nepal (84°E) has been calculated from the declination of our reverse polarity pyrrhotite component. A possible range of 520–1100 km results from consideration of different tectonic models.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Plant, cell & environment 16 (1993), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Carbon transport across the plasma membrane, and carbon fixation were measured in perfused Chara internodal cells. These parameters were measured in external media of pH 5·5 and pH 8·5, where CO2 and HCO3- are, respectively, the predominant carbon species in both light and dark conditions. Cells perfused with medium containing ATP could utilize both CO2 and HCO3- from the external medium in the light. Photosynthetic carbon fixation activity was always higher at pH 5·5 than at pH 8·5. When cells were perfused either with medium containing hexokinase and 2-deoxyglucose to deplete ATP from the cytosol (HK medium) or with medium containing vanadate, a specific inhibitor of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase (V medium), photosynthetic carbon fixation was strongly inhibited at both pH 5·5 and 8·5. Perfusion of cells with medium containing pyruvate kinase and phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to maximally activate the H+-ATPase (PK medium), stimulated the photosynthetic carbon fixation activities. Oxygen evolution of isolated chloroplasts and the carbon fixation of cells supplied 14C intracellularly were not inhibited by perfusion media containing either hexokinase and 2-deoxyglucose or vanadate. The results indicate that Chara cells possess CO2 and HCO3- transport systems energized by ATP and sensitive to vanadate in the light. In the dark, intact cells also fix carbon. By contrast, in cells perfused with medium containing ATP, no carbon fixation was detected in 1 mol m -3 total dissolved inorganic carbon (TDIC) at pH 8·5. By increasing TDIC to 10 mol m-3, dark fixation became detectable, although it was still lower than that of intact cells at 1mol m-3 TDIC. Addition of PEP or PEP and PEP carboxylase to the perfusion media significantly increased the dark-carbon fixation. Perfusion with vanadate had no effect on the dark-carbon fixation.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of fish biology 16 (1980), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1095-8649
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Fish toxicity of etho-nonylphenol and of two non-ionic antifoam agents was tested using rainbow trout, Sulmo guirdneri, in 24 h tests. The surface tension of these three compounds was found to depend on concentration and ageing time of the test solutions. The toxicity of the surfactant was about twice as high as known values, with a LC50 of 8.5 mg/1 at 15°C. The addition of antifoam agents to the surfactant solutions further lowered the surface tension but did not alter substantially the fish toxicity of the surfactant. Contrary to expectation, the fish survived in concentrated antifoam solutions at surface tensions as low as 31 dyn/cm for more than 24 h without any apparent damage. The relevance of the surface tension regarding the fish toxicity of detergents in general is critically discussed.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of fish biology 58 (2001), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1095-8649
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The sequence variation of three exons of the major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) was examined in a lake whitefish Coregonus sp., population from the Swiss lake of Hallwil. DNA sequences from the Mhc class I A1, A2 and class II B1 exons, corresponding to the α1, α2 and β1 domains of the Mhc glycoproteins, were obtained by the polymerase chain reaction followed by cloning and sequencing. The numbers of variable sequences detected for each exon were 15 (A1), 11 (A2) and 20 (B1). Levels of nucleotide similarity ranged from 82 to 99% for the A1 exon, 58–96% for the A2 and 88–99% for the B1 exon. At the A1 and B1 exons, the nonsynonymous substitution rates (dn) exceeded synonymous substitution rates (ds) greatly within the peptide binding regions, indicating the effect of balancing selection. Sequence diversity at the A2 exon did not seem to be maintained by balancing selection (ds 〉 dn). Phylogenetic comparison of whitefish Mhc sequences with sequences from other salmonid species and more distantly related teleosts indicated shared ancestral (trans-species) polymorphism.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of fish biology 36 (1990), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1095-8649
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The feeding ecology of whitefish, Coregonus, larvae in oligotrophic Lake Sarnen and eutrophic Lake Hallwil is presented, taking into consideration the size of the prey ingested in relation to the mouth size of larvae and to the availability of zooplankton.When larvae grow from 10 to 16 mm their mouth width increases from 500 to 1000 μm while their gape height, with the mouth open at 45 and 90°, increases from 200 to 400 μm and from 400 to 700 μm, respectively, whichever lake is considered.The differences found in the mean prey width between the two lakes arise in part from the composition of diets, and in part from differences in size of the available prey organisms. Whatever the origin of the larvae and the taxon we consider, larvae seem to ingest the most abundant prey size without selecting the biggest ones available even if, from a mechanical point of view, they would be able to ingest them.Taking into account the generally low density of zooplankton in the uppermost layer of the lake, we conclude that whitefish larvae eat in the manner such as to decrease the cost of prey capture, in terms of energy and time, by choosing the more abundant prey available.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1095-8649
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Feeding intensity by whitefish Coregonus sp., in oligotrophic Lake Lucerne in Switzerland was high during dusk when the bulk of potential prey items were in the depth zone occupied by the fish. Diet composition was fairly uniform throughout the day but changed substantially over the seasons. The fish fed opportunistically; differences between seasons reflected changes in prey availability. During the intensive feeding and growing period (May-September), fish were found in the upper 20 m of the lake feeding primarily on cladocerans. Large and non-evasive species, Daphnia spp. and Bythotrephes longimanus, were the most numerous and frequent organisms in the diet during the major part of the growing season. Smaller (Bosmina spp.) as well as evasive species (cyclopoid copepods) were consumed in large numbers when larger, non-evasive species were rare in the lake. The fish showed strong preference for the least abundant crustacean, B. longimanus, while the most abundant crustaceans, calanoid copepods, were rare in the diet. The fish not only selected particular species but, within each species, selected the larger individuals. Diel vertical migration of the prey items in this lake could be, at least in part, attributed to fish predation pressure. The observed selectivity patterns shown by the fish are explained in terms of prey visibility, escape ability, the overlap in distribution of predators and prey in time and space, the profitability of the prey and the present trophic state of the lake.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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