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  • Blackwell Publishing Ltd  (2)
  • Springer Nature  (1)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Responses of photosynthesis (A) to intercellular CO2 concentration (ci) in 2-year-old Pinus radiata D. Don seedlings were measured at a range of temperatures in order to parametrize a biophysical model of leaf photosynthesis. Increasing leaf temperature from 8 to 30°C caused a 4-fold increase in Vcmax, the maximum rate of carboxylation (10.7–43.3 μol m−2 s−1 and a 3-fold increase in Jmax, the maximum electron transport rate (20.5–60.2 μmol m −2 s−1). The temperature optimum for Jmax was lower than that for Vcmax, causing a decline in the ratio Jmax:Vcmax from 2.0 to 1.4 as leaf temperature increased from 8 to 30°C. To determine the response of photosynthesis to leaf nitrogen concentration, additional measurements were made on seedlings grown under four nitrogen treatments. Foliar N concentrations varied between 0.36 and 1.27 mol kg−1, and there were linear relationships between N concentration and both Vcmax and Jmax. Measurements made throughout the crown of a plantation forest tree, where foliar N concentrations varied from 0.83 mol kg−1 near the base to 1.54 mol kg−1 near the leader, yielded similar relationships. These results will be useful in scaling carbon assimilation models from leaves to canopies.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: A model is presented which solves simultaneously for leaf-scale stomatal conductance, CO2 assimilation and the energy balance as a function of leaf position within canopies of well-watered vegetation. Fluxes and conductances were calculated separately for sunlit and shaded leaves. A linear dependence of photosynthetic capacity on leaf nitrogen content was assumed, while leaf nitrogen content and light intensity were assumed to decrease exponentially within canopies. Separate extinction coefficients were used for diffuse and direct beam radiation. An efficient Gaussian integration technique was used to compute fluxes and mean conductances for the canopy. The multilayer model synthesizes current knowledge of radiation penetration, leaf physiology and the physics of evaporation and provides insights into the response of whole canopies to multiple, interacting factors. The model was also used to explore sources of variation in the slopes of two simple parametric models (nitrogen- and light-use efficiency), and to set bounds on the magnitudes of the parameters.For canopies low in total N, daily assimilation rates are ∼10% lower when leaf N is distributed uniformly than when the same total N is distributed according to the exponentially decreasing profile of absorbed radiation. However, gains are negligible for plants with high N concentrations. Canopy conductance, Gc should be calculated as Gc=Aσ(fslgsl+fshgsh), where Δ is leaf area index, fsi and fsh are the fractions of sunlit and shaded leaves at each level, and gsi and gsh are the corresponding stomatal conductances. Simple addition of conductances without this weighting causes errors in transpiration calculated using the ‘big-leaf’ version of the Penman-Monteith equation. Partitioning of available energy between sensible and latent heat is very responsive to the parameter describing the sensitivity of stomata to the atmospheric humidity deficit. This parameter also affects canopy conductance, but has a relatively small impact on canopy assimilation.Simple parametric models are useful for extrapolating understanding from small to large scales, but the complexity of real ecosystems is thus subsumed in unexplained variations in parameter values. Simulations with the multilayer model show that both nitrogen- and radiation-use efficiencies depend on plant nutritional status and the diffuse component of incident radiation, causing a 2- to 3-fold variation in these efficiencies.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 1994-09-01
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Published by Springer Nature
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