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  • 1
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: : Based on the high level of extractability of myosin subunits (light chains), even after prolonged heat treatment of muscle, a new method to evaluate the dark muscle content in the fish meat and products of mackerel is proposed. Tissue-specific rabbit antisera with myosin light chains (A1 from ordinary muscle and D1 from dark muscle) from mackerel Scomber japonicus were obtained. Mackerel meat paste (surimi) was dissolved in 8 M urea containing 1% SDS, and diffused on agar plates containing antiserum against A1 or D1 by single radial immunodiffusion (SRID). The results obtained showed that the area of halos formed in the plates was quite proportional to the content of dark muscle.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1574-695X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The resurgence in mycobacterial infection worldwide has led to renewed attention to the pathogenesis of Mycobacterium species. Although interferon-γ (IFN-γ) is a principal mediator of macrophage activation, macrophages infected with Mycobacterium are poor in response at the cytokine. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying mycobacterial infection remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of the poor response to IFN-γ in mycobacterial infection. Our data clearly demonstrate that this is due to induction of suppressor of cytokine signal (SOCS) negative regulators of IFN-γ signal transduction that closely correlates with the inhibition of JAK/STAT signaling and gene expression stimulated by IFN-γ. Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin infection induces the production of SOCS-1 and SOCS-3 in murine J774 macrophages. The level of SOCS-1 mRNA increased 1 h and reached a maximum 3 h after the addition of the bacteria. SOCS-3 mRNA expression appeared as early as 1 h after the infection. We also observed that trehalose 6,6′-dimycolate/cord factor, a major component of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell wall, induces expression of SOCS and inhibits IFN-γ-stimulated phosphorylation of STAT1 extensively in the cells. The results in this study suggest that a molecular mechanism of mycobacterial infection affects the unresponsiveness to IFN-γ in the subsequent growth and spread of macrophages.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Bluefin tuna oxymyoglobin (oxyMb) solutions were frozen either quickly at −80°C or slowly at −2O°C, thawed, and the metmyoglobin (metMb) to total myoglobin (Mb) ratio (metMb%) determined. When quick freezing was applied, autoxidation was clearly pH-dependent, with a minimum (metMb%, 15–40) at around pH 5.9–6.3. When slowly frozen and thawed, on the other hand, tuna Mb generally showed an extremely high metMb%. Freezing and thawing partially insolubilized tuna Mb, depending upon pH. The Mb showed the minimum ratio of insolubilization at pH 6–6.3 again. Insolubilization of tuna Mb was markedly accelerated by NaCl.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The foot, opercular and visceral muscles were excised from the turban shell Batillus cornutus, and their heat-induced changes in toughness and ultrastructure were compared. When heated up to 30°C, the toughness of foot muscle decreased in the upper and middle regions, but increased in the lower region. The toughness of these three regions decreased at temperatures between 50-70°C, where collagen might be denatured. Some changes in toughness were also observed in the opercular muscle by heating up to 30°C, whereas the toughness of visceral muscle remained unchanged over a wide range of temperature. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the intrinsic structure of collagen fibrils in each muscle was lost at 60°C, with partial swelling.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1365-2761
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1550-7408
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The ciliated protozoan Paramecium contains hemoglobin in heterogeneous monomeric forms. In particular, Paramecium caudatum is characterized by the presence of a major component called Hb10 and a basic component named bHb. We found that in P. caudatum both of these hemoglobin components show some variation according to stock. The types and distributions of these hemoglobin components were examined on 16 stocks in five different syngens and one stock in an unidentified syngen using high performance liquid chromatography. The results indicate that in a variety of stocks the major component, Hb10, was divided into three types, A, B or A + B, and that the basic hemoglobin component was composed of a combination of two or three variants out of four possible, i.e. bHb 1, bHb 2, bHb 3 and bHb 4. Neither the Hb10 types nor the bHb variants, however, could be used to distinguish syngen in P. caudatum, since all of the Hb10 types and bHb variants were widely distributed over syngens and identical profiles appeared to some stocks in different syngens.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1550-7408
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: SYNOPSIS. The helical coiling state of a glycerinated stalk in the family Vorticellidae had been regarded, without any evidence, as a reversible and completely equilibrated mechano-chemical system regulated by the external free Ca2+ concentration. Our present detailed observations of many individual stalks of glycerinated Vorticella convallaria revealed that the contraction-extension cycle of the helical stalks caused by increasing and decreasing free Ca2+ concentrations in the medium represents a kind of hysteresis. This phenomenon was observed in extensively glycerinated Vorticella in a medium of very low or physiological ionic strength, as well as in briefly glycerinated ciliates. With regard to the configurational change in various parts of a glycerinated stalk during the contraction-extension cycle, it was found that the initial bending of the stalk caused by increasing free Ca2+ concentration begins to take place near the zooid (head) while the initial reextension of the stalk with decreasing free Ca2+ concentration begins to take place near the zooid (head) while the initial reextension of the stalk with decreasing free Ca2+ concentration takes place simultaneously throughout the entire stalk. The Ca2+ threshold for complete reextension of the part of the stalk near the rootlet was found to be much higher than that near the zooid.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1442-1984
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Dryobalanops aromatica is an emergent canopy tree species with hermaphroditic bee-pollinated flowers. This species is distributed in the lowland dipterocarp forests of Malaya, Sumatra, Rhio Archipelago and Borneo. The flowering of many different dipterocarp species was observed in some parts of Brunei in 1991, and all over Brunei in 1992. The outcrossing rates of D, aromatica were estimated in 1991 and 1992 in the secondary forest, and in 1992 in the primary forest. Selective harvesting of D. aromatica has occurred in the secondary forest about 20 years ago. Four enzyme systems with a total of six isozyme loci were used to estimate the single locus and the multilocus outcrossing rates. The multilocus outcrossing estimates ranged from 0.794 to 0.856, with a mean of 0.816. These estimates are similar to those for other tropical tree species. Although the flowering density of D. aromatica in the secondary forest was lower than in the primary forest, the multilocus outcrossing estimates were not significantly different. The variation between years in the secondary forest was also not significant. These findings may be largely the result of the high flowering tree density of this species, even in the secondary forest. In this study, the outcrossing rates of D. aromatica were maintained by high flowering density regardless of the size structure or the topography of the habitat.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1574-695X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Mouse monoclonal antibody (mAb) Pgf-II specific for a 72-kDa major cell-surface protein (72K-CSP) derived from Porphyromonas gingivalis OMZ 409 was prepared. Immunoblotting analysis revealed that mAb Pgf-II reacted with 72K-CSP but not with 41-kDa fimbrial subunit protein (41K-fimbrilin) derived from P. gingivalis 381. Electron microscopic observation revealed that P. gingivalis OMZ 409 possessed peritrichous, thin fimbriae on their surface. Immunogold electron microscopy also demonstrated that mAb Pgf-II bound to the 72K-CSP examined with the gold particles arranged along the fibril array originating from the cell surface of the bacteria. These findings suggested that P. gingivalis 72K-CSP was identifiable as another fimbriae (termed Pg-II fimbriae) different from the fimbriae (termed Pg-I fimbriae) composed of a 41K-fimbrilin. Using multipin peptide synthesis technology, 102 sequential overlapping peptides covering the entire 514 amino-acid stretch of Pg-II fimbriae were synthesised. Seven immunodominant regions within Pg-II fimbrial protein molecule, which definitely reacted with the serum of patients with periodontal diseases, were detected.
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