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  • ASLO (Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography)  (1)
  • Blackwell Publishing Ltd  (1)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1574-6941
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Most widely used medium for cultivation of methanotrophic bacteria from various environments is that proposed in 1970 by Whittenbury. In order to adapt and optimize medium for culturing of methanotrophs from freshwater sediment, media with varying concentrations of substrates, phosphate, nitrate, and other mineral salts were used to enumerate methanotrophs by the most probable number method. High concentrations (〉1 mM) of magnesium and sulfate, and high concentrations of nitrate (〉500 μM) significantly reduced the number of cultured methanotrophs, whereas phosphate in the range of 15–1500 μM had no influence. Also oxygen and carbon dioxide influenced the culturing efficiency, with an optimal mixing ratio of 17% O2 and 3% CO2; the mixing ratio of methane (6–32%) had no effect. A clone library of pmoA genes amplified by PCR from DNA extracted from sediment revealed the presence of both type I and type II methanotrophs. Nonetheless, the cultivation of methanotrophs, also with the improved medium, clearly favored growth of type II methanotrophs of the Methylosinus/Methylocystis group. Although significantly more methanotrophs could be cultured with the modified medium, their diversity did not mirror the diversity of methanotrophs in the sediment sample detected by molecular biology method.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-09-24
    Description: Large quantities of methane are stored in hydrates and permafrost within shallow marine sediments in the Arctic Ocean. These reservoirs are highly sensitive to climate warming, but the fate of methane released from sediments is uncertain. Here, we review the principal physical and biogeochemical processes that regulate methane fluxes across the seabed, the fate of this methane in the water column, and potential for its release to the atmosphere. We find that, at present, fluxes of dissolved methane are significantly moderated by anaerobic and aerobic oxidation of methane. If methane fluxes increase then a greater proportion of methane will be transported by advection or in the gas phase, which reduces the efficiency of the methanotrophic sink. Higher freshwater discharge to Arctic shelf seas may increase stratification and inhibit transfer of methane gas to surface waters, although there is some evidence that increased stratification may lead to warming of sub-pycnocline waters, increasing the potential for hydrate dissociation. Loss of sea-ice is likely to increase wind speeds and seaair exchange of methane will consequently increase. Studies of the distribution and cycling of methane beneath and within sea ice are limited, but it seems likely that the sea-air methane flux is higher during melting in seasonally ice-covered regions. Our review reveals that increased observations around especially the anaerobic and aerobic oxidation of methane, bubble transport, and the effects of ice cover, are required to fully understand the linkages and feedback pathways between climate warming and release of methane from marine sediments.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: text
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