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  • 1
    ISSN: 1748-7692
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Mesoplodon perrini, a new species of beaked whale is described on the basis of five animals stranded on the coast of California (between 32°55′N, 117°15′W and 36°37′N, 121°55′W) from May 1975 to September 1997. Four of these animals were initially identified as Hector's beaked whales M. hectori based on cranial morphology (Mead 1981). A fifth specimen was initially identified as a neonate Cuvier's beaked whale Ziphius cavirostris based on external features. These specimens were first recognized as representatives of an undescribed species through phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial (mt) DNA control region and cytochrome b sequence data. Although similar morphologically, the genetic data do not support a close evolutionary relationship between M. perrini and M. hectori. Instead, these data suggest a possible sister species relationship with the lesser beaked whale M. peruvianus. Sightings of two small beaked whales off California in the 1970s which were tentatively identified as M. hectori are also likely to be M. perrini. We suggest that M. hectori is confined to the Southern Hemisphere, while M. perrini is known to date only from the North Pacific.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1748-7692
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Mesoplodon traversii (Gray, 1874) is shown to be a senior synonym of the recently described beaked whale Mesoplodon hahamondi Reyes et al., 1995 on the basis of a phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA control region sequences. The mandible and teeth of M. traversii, first reported in 1873 by Hector as Dolichodon layardii. are redescribed. The species can be distinguished by features of the calvaria; including the large jugal, broad rostrum, and small distance between premaxillary foramina. The male teeth, which are large and spade-shaped with a strong terminal denticle, are also diagnostic. M. traversii is known only from Pitt Island and White Island, New Zealand and Robinson Crusoe Island, Juan Fernandez Archipelago, Chile.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Marine mammal science 18 (2002), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1748-7692
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: We examined the effects of research handling on free-ranging endangered Hawaiian monk seals, Monachus schauinslandi, by analyzing differences in subsequent year survival, migration, and condition between handled seals and controls during 1983–1998. Each of 549 handled seals was matched to a control seal of the same age, sex, location, and year. Handling included instrumentation with tel metry devices (n= 93), blood sampling (n= 19), and tagging (n= 437). No significant differences were found between handled seals and their controls in one-year resighting rates, observed migration rates, or condition. Resighting rates of handled and control seals were high (80%-100%). Available sample sizes were sufficient to detect reasonably small (9%-20%) differences in resighting rates had they existed among instrumented or tagged seals and controls (α= 0.05, power = 0.90). Too few seals were captured for blood sampling to detect even large differences in their resighting rates. However, blood samples were drawn from most instrumented seals, and there was no indication that this larger group suffered harmful effects. Duration of restraint during flipper tagging had no effect on subsequent probability of resighting. Our analysis suggests that conservative selection procedures and careful handling techniques have no deleterious effects on Hawaiian monk seals.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Marine mammal science 17 (2001), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1748-7692
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The specific status of Mesoplodon bowdoini Andrews is reviewed and new information on its morphology, reproduction, and distribution is presented. This species of beaked whale, known only from 35 specimens, has a southern, circumpolar distribution north of the Antarctic convergence, between 32° and 54°30′S. It shares with M. bahamondi Reyes, Van Waerebeek, Cárdenas and Yáñez from the south Pacific Ocean including New Zealand (this paper) and M. carlhubbsi Moore from the north Pacific, a number of morphological features such as prominential notches in the maxillary bones in the skull. It is less similar to M. stejnegeri True from the north Pacific and M. ginkgodens Nishiwaki and Kamiya from the tropical Indo-Pacific. Mesoplodon bowdoini can be distinguished from all other species of Mesoplodon by the shape of its teeth (male and female), and differences in the morphology of its skull, especially the proportions of the rostrum, separation of the nasals, the shape of the prominential notches, and the nature of the antorbital processes. The species' distinguishing external characteristics are: a robust body up to about 4.50 m long; a low melon and short, thick beak; an elevated jawline posteriorly; and a low, blunt-tipped, triangular dorsal fin. The occurrence of fetuses of M. bowdoini in May and September, and perinatal juveniles in May and June, indicates a summer-autumn breeding season in the New Zealand region; the length at birth is estimated at about 2.20 m.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1748-7692
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1748-7692
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1435-5957
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geography , Economics
    Notes: Abstract. The supermarket equation is a differential equation peculiar to spatial science. The complex form of this equation is presented here and is used to study aggregate consumer shopping patterns. The focus is the relationship between trips to, and shopping within, planned shopping centres relative to retail trading hour boundaries. In this context, five malls in Sydney are studied in the period prior to the introduction of deregulated shopping hours in 1992. The space-time convergence of aggregate consumer behaviour at these retail nodes show that the gravity coefficient can be treated in a temporal context. Estimates of mean trading hours can be made from the general solution and these are compared to alternative estimates from Fourier analysis. Time corrections to the gravity coefficient allow for a dynamic market area analysis, where the primary trade area can be determined relative to the trading hours of the shopping centre. A Sydney example shows how this methodology can be applied with population census data.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Decision sciences 33 (2002), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1540-5915
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: We develop a stochastic model to explore the benefits of incorporating auctions in revenue management. To the best of our knowledge the extant literature on modeling in revenue management has not considered auctions. We consider three models, namely, a traditional fixed price (non-auction) model, a pure auction model, and a hybrid auction model and evaluate their revenue performance under a variety of conditions. The hybrid approach outperforms the other two in all 24 scenarios and yields an average revenue increase of 16.1% over the next best. A surprise finding is that there is no significant difference between the performance of the fixed price and pure auction approaches. A sensitivity analysis reveals that the relative superiority of the hybrid revenue management strategy is reasonably robust.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Decision sciences 33 (2002), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1540-5915
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Revenue Management Systems (RMS) are commonly used in the hotel industry to maximize revenues in the short term. The forecasting-allocation module is a key tactical component of a hotel RMS. Forecasting involves estimating demand for service packages across all stayover nights in a planning horizon. A service package is a unique combination of physical room, amenities, room price, and advance purchase restrictions. Allocation involves parsing the room inventory among these service packages to maximize revenues. Previous research and existing revenue management systems assume the demand for a service package to be independent of which service packages are available for sale. We develop a new forecasting-allocation approach that explicitly accounts for this dependence. We compare the performance of the new approach against a baseline approach using a realistic hotel RMS simulation. The baseline approach reflects previous research and existing industry practice. The new approach produces an average revenue increase of at least 16% across scenarios that reflect existing industry conditions.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1748-7692
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Efforts to enhance recovery of endangered Hawaiian monk seals (Monachus schauinslandi) require an understanding of factors influencing population dynamics. This study examines relationships between body condition and survival of monk seal pups at French Frigate Shoals and Laysan Island and El Niño events. Girth measurements and mass estimates were used as indicators of pup body condition, and survival was evaluated from weaning to age 2. Linear models and logistic regression analysis were used to evaluate El Niño effects. Temporal trends in mean girth, mass, and survival were identified at both study sites. After accounting for temporal trends, girths were 3.7 cm and 2.7 cm greater during El Niño years at French Frigate Shoals and Laysan Island, respectively. Average mass estimates were significantly greater during El Niño years at French Frigate Shoals (2.6 kg increase), but were not significantly different at Laysan Island (1.8 kg increase). Weaned pups born at French Frigate Shoals during El Niño years survived significantly better, but this effect was not detected at Laysan Island. El Niño events probably affect pup condition and survival, but these parameters need to be monitored during future El Niño events to clarify these relationships.
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