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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2012-11-10
    Description: Background: This study investigated the effects of salmonella infection and its chemotherapy on lipid metabolism in tissues of rats infected orally with Salmonella typhimurium and treated intraperitoneally with pefloxacin and amoxillin. Methods: Animals were infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain TA 98. After salmonellosis was confirmed, they were divided into 7 groups of 5 animals each. While one group served as infected control group, three groups were treated with amoxillin (7.14mg/kg body weight, 8 hourly) and the remaining three groups with pefloxacin (5.71mg/kg body weight, 12 hourly) for 5 and 10 days respectively. Uninfected control animals received 0.1ml of vehicle. Rats were sacrificed 24h after 5 and 10days of antibiotic treatment and 5days after discontinuation of antibiotic treatment. Their corresponding controls were also sacrificed at the same time point. Blood and tissue lipids were then evaluated. Results: Salmonella infection resulted in dyslipidemia characterised by increased concentrations of free fatty acids (FFA) in plasma and erythrocyte, as well as enhanced cholesterogenesis, hypertriglyceridemia and phospholipidosis in plasma, low density lipoprotein-very low density lipoprotein (LDL-VLDL), erythrocytes, erythrocyte ghost and the organs. The antibiotics reversed the dyslipidemia but not totally. A significant correlation was observed between fecal bacterial load and plasma cholesterol (r=0.456, p
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-511X
    Topics: Biology
    Published by BioMed Central
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2012-11-27
    Description: Background: Bats (Chiroptera) are one of the most diverse groups of mammals which carry out important ecological and agricultural functions that are beneficial to humans. However, they are increasingly recognized as natural vectors for a number of zoonotic pathogens and favourable hosts for zoonotic infections. Large populations of the Straw-Coloured Fruit Bat (Eidolon helvum) colonize the main campus of the Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU), Ile-Ife, Nigeria, but the public health implications of faecal contamination and pollution by these flying mammals is unknown. This study characterized S. aureus obtained from faecal samples of these migratory mammals with a view to determining the clonal types of the isolates, and to investigate the possibility of these flying animals as potential reservoir for zoonotic S. aureus infections. Results: One hundred and seven (107) S. aureus isolates were recovered from 560 faecal samples in eleven roosting sites from January 2008 to February 2010. A large proportion of the isolates were susceptible to antibiotics, and molecular characterization of 70 isolates showed that 65 (92.9%) were assigned in coagulase type VI, while accessory gene typing classified 69 isolates into the following: type I (12; 17.1%), type II (3; 4.3%), type III (1; 1.4%) and type IV (53; 75.7%). On the whole, the isolates were grouped in five (A-E) main genotypes. Of the ten representative isolates selected for multilocus sequence typing (MLST), nine isolates were assigned with new sequence types: ST1725, ST1726, ST1727, ST2463-ST2467 and ST2470. Phylogenetic analysis provided evidence that S. aureus isolates in group C were closely related with ST1822 and associated clones identified in African monkeys, and group D isolates with ST75, ST883 and ST1223. The two groups exhibited remarkable genetic diversity compared to the major S. aureus clade. Conclusions: Antibiotic resistance in faecal S. aureus isolates of E. helvum is low and multiple unique S. aureus lineages co-existed with E. helvum. The Straw-Coloured Fruit Bat in Ile-Ife, Nigeria is colonized predominantly by ST1725, ST1726, ST2463 and ST2470 with distinct genotypic characteristics that are rarely found in humans. This study has demonstrated on the possible existence of a reservoir of indigenous and anciently-divergent S. aureus clones among mammals in Africa.
    Electronic ISSN: 1471-2180
    Topics: Biology
    Published by BioMed Central
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2012-12-12
    Description: Background: The objectives of the present study were to investigate the efficacy of the mixed culture of Lactobacillus acidophilus (DSM 20242), Bifidobacterium bifidum (DSM 20082) and Lactobacillus helveticus (CK60) in the fermentation of maize and the evaluation of the effect of the fermented meal on the lipid profile of rats. Methods: Rats were randomly assigned to 3 groups and each group placed on a Diet A (high fat diet into which a maize meal fermented with a mixed culture of Lb acidophilus (DSM 20242), B bifidum (DSM 20082) and Lb helveticus (CK 60) was incorporated), B (unfermented high fat diet) or C (commercial rat chow) respectively after the first group of 7 rats randomly selected were sacrificed to obtain the baseline data. Thereafter 7 rats each from the experimental and control groups were sacrificed weekly for 4 weeks and the plasma, erythrocytes, lipoproteins and organs of the rats were assessed for cholesterol, triglyceride and phospholipids. Results: Our results revealed that the mixed culture of Lb acidophilus (DSM 20242), B bifidum (DSM 20082) and Lb helveticus (CK 60) were able to grow and ferment maize meal into 'ogi' of acceptable flavour. In addition to plasma and hepatic hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia, phospholipidosis in plasma, as well as cholesterogenesis, triglyceride constipation and phospholipidosis in extra-hepatic tissues characterized the consumption of unfermented hyperlipidemic diets. However, feeding the animals with the fermented maize diet reversed the dyslipidemia. Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate that consumption of mixed culture lactic acid bacteria (Lb acidophilus (DSM 20242), Bifidobacterium bifidum (DSM 20082) and Lb helveticus (CK 60) fermented food results in the inhibition of fat absorption. It also inhibits the activity of HMG CoA reductase. This inhibition may be by feedback inhibition or repression of the transcription of the gene encoding the enzyme via activation of the sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) transcription factor. It is also possible that consumption of fermented food enhances conversion of cholesterol to bile acids by activating cholesterol-7alpha-hydroxylase.
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-511X
    Topics: Biology
    Published by BioMed Central
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2015-02-23
    Description: Background: To investigate whether amoxillin and pefloxacin perturb lipid metabolism. Methods: Rats were treated with therapeutic doses of each antibiotic for 5 and 10 days respectively. Twenty four hours after the last antibiotic treatment and 5 days after antibiotic withdrawal, blood and other tissues (liver, kidney, brain, heart and spleen) were removed from the animals after an overnight fast and analysed for their lipid contents. Results: Both antibiotics produced various degrees of compartment-specific dyslipidemia in the animals. While plasma and erythrocyte dyslipidemia was characterised by up-regulation of the concentrations of the major lipids (cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids and free fatty acids), hepatic and renal dyslipidemia was characterised by cholesterogenesis and phospholipidosis. Splenic dyslipidemia was characterised by cholesterogenesis and decreased phospholipid levels. Cardiac and brain cholesterol contents were not affected by the antibiotics. A transient phospholipidosis was observed in the brain whereas cardiac phospholipids decreased significantly. Lipoprotein abnormalities were reflected as down-regulation of HDL cholesterol. Furthermore, the two antibiotics increased the activity of hepatic HMG-CoA reductase. Although erythrocyte phospholipidosis was resolved 5 days after withdrawing the antibiotics, dyslipidemia observed in other compartments was still not reversible. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that induction of cholesterogenesis and phospholipidosis might represent additional adverse effects of amoxillin and pefloxacin.
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-511X
    Topics: Biology
    Published by BioMed Central
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