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  • 1
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2017-04-27
    Description: In diesem Bericht wird die chinesische Investitionsstrategie für Europa untersucht. Während die Investoren aus China in Westeuropa vor allem den Zugang zu fortschrittlicher Technologie suchen, geht es in Mittel- und Osteuropa vornehmlich um die Präsenz im Gemeinsamen Markt und den Ausbau von Infrastruktur, auch im Rahmen der Initiative 'Neue Seidenstraße'. In einer ökonometrischen Analyse zu den Determinanten dieser Investitionen wird gezeigt, dass sie weitgehend entlang konventioneller Erklärungsmuster stattfinden. Wird zwischen Unternehmensneugründungen und Beteiligungen an bestehenden Unternehmen als zwei Formen des Marktzugangs differenziert, ergeben sich durchaus spezifische Determinanten: Ein hoher Industrieanteil, solide Institutionen und Lohnstückkosten im Zielland haben alle einen negativen Einfluss auf Neugründungen, aber nicht auf Unternehmensbeteiligungen. Unterschiedliche Investitionsmuster sowie die heterogenen Interessenlagen der Mitgliedstaaten erschweren eine koordinierte Antwort auf die chinesische Investitionsoffensive. Im Rahmen eines Investitionsschutzabkommens zwischen der EU und China ließe sich aber zumindest eine gewisse Reziprozität festhalten, die eine wachsende Skepsis chinesischen Investitionen gegenüber abmildern dürfte.
    Keywords: F21 ; E22 ; C25 ; ddc:330 ; Chinese foreign investment strategy ; knowledge and technology transfer ; FDI determinants
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 2
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-08
    Description: We investigate second generation migrants and native children at several stages in the German education system to analyze the determinants of the persistent native-migrant gap. One part of the gap can be attributed to differences in socioeconomic background and another part remains unexplained. Faced with this decomposition problem, we apply linear and matching decomposition methods. Accounting for differences in socioeconomic background, we find that migrant pupils are just as likely to receive recommendations for or to enroll at any secondary school type as native children. Comparable natives, in terms of family background, thus face similar difficulties as migrant children. Our results point at more general inequalities in secondary schooling in Germany which are not migrant-specific.
    Keywords: J15 ; J24 ; I21 ; ddc:330 ; migration ; education ; human capital ; Germany ; tracking
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 3
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-08
    Description: The major event of the 9/11 terror attacks is likely to have induced an increase in anti-immigrant and anti-foreigner sentiments, not only among US residents but also beyond US borders. Using longitudinal data from the German Socio-Economic Panel and exploiting exogenous variation in interview timing throughout 2001, I find that the terror attacks in the US caused an immediate shift of around 40 percent of one within standard deviation to more negative attitudes toward immigration and resulted in a considerable decrease in concerns over xenophobic hostility among the German population. Furthermore, in exploiting within-individual variation this quasi-experiment provides evidence on the role of education inmoderating the negative terrorism shock.
    Keywords: F22 ; I21 ; J61 ; ddc:330 ; immigration ; attitudes ; education ; September 11 ; terrorism
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 4
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2016-06-22
    Description: Das ökonomische Potenzial ethnischer und kultureller Vielfalt wird häufig verkannt. Die Ergebnisse neuerer Studien, die in diesem Beitrag zusammengefasst werden, zeigen jedoch, dass sich weiche Faktoren wie etwa Einstellungen, Wahrnehmungen und Identitäten, hier insbesondere ethnische Identitäten, wesentlich auf ökonomische Ergebnisse auswirken können. Dies geht sowohl aus Analysen des Prozesses kultureller Integration in einer generationenübergreifenden Perspektive als auch aus Untersuchungen der Arbeitsplatzsuche und der Wiedereingliederung von Arbeitslosen in den Arbeitsmarkt hervor. Eine Volkswirtschaft kann sich durch eine geeignete Beachtung und Einbeziehung multi-ethnischer Faktoren ökonomisch besser stellen. Kulturelle und ethnische Assimilation von Zuwanderern ist deshalb keine alleinige oder dominante Strategie der ökonomisch erfolgreichen Einbindung in die Aufnahmegesellschaft. Neben einer besseren Aktivierung der Integrationspotenziale bei Personen mit Migrationshintergrund ist auch eine kulturelle oder ethnische Öffnung der Einheimischen sinnvoll.
    Keywords: F22 ; J15 ; J61 ; ddc:330 ; migration ; ethnicity ; ethnic identity ; labor market success
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 5
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2016-06-22
    Description: This paper analyses the determinants of Chinese direct investment (DI) in the European Union (EU). Evidence is based on panel Poisson models drawing on two investment monitors for individual projects. We distinguish between the numbers of greenfield investments (GIs) and mergers and acquisitions (M&As). The findings indicate that market size and trade relationships with China are the primary factors driving Chinese DI in the EU. In contrast, more business-friendly institutions do not foster DI. Chinese enterprises might be risk averse, in other words prefer to choose their activities in regions with less competitive markets. The striking difference between GIs and M&As is related to unit labour costs. Higher costs make the host country less attractive for the establishment of new firms, but do not affect the involvement in existing firms. The sectoral dispersion of Chinese DI in the EU has not changed much since the global financial crisis of 2008. Most relevant shifts have occurred in research and development (R&D), where low-income EU countries have gained in attractiveness.
    Keywords: F21 ; E22 ; C25 ; ddc:330 ; China FDI ; Greenfield investments ; mergers and acquisitions
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 6
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2017-04-27
    Description: This report examines China's strategy for investing in Europe. While investing in Western Europe is primarily about obtaining access to advanced technologies, investing in Central and Eastern Europe is more about establishing a presence in the EU common market and expanding infrastructure-which also fits into the framework of the New Silk Road Initiative. An econometric analysis reveals that the investments largely follow conventional explanatory patterns. If we distinguish between different forms of market access, the determinants become much more specific. A high industrial share, sound institutions, and unit labor costs in the target country all have a negative impact on investment in new ventures, but not on investment in existing companies. Differing investment patterns, as well as the heterogeneous interests of the EU member states, make it difficult to implement a coordinated response to the Chinese investment offensive. At the very least, however, a kind of reciprocity should be introduced within the framework of an investment protection agreement between the EU and China. This could reduce the growing skepticism surrounding Chinese investment activities.
    Keywords: F21 ; E22 ; C25 ; ddc:330 ; Chinese foreign investment strategy ; knowledge and technology transfer ; FDI determinants
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 7
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-26
    Description: A lack of cultural integration is often blamed for hindering immigrant families' economic progression. This paper is a first attempt to explore whether immigrant parents' ethnic identity affects the next generation's human capital accumulation in the host country. Empirical results based on data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) indicate that maternal majority as well as paternal minority identity are positively related to the educational attainment of second-generation youth - even controlling for differences in ethnicity, family background and years-since-migration. Additional tests show that the effect of maternal majority identity can be explained by mothers' German language proficiency, while the beneficial effect of fathers' minority identity is not related to language skills and thus likely to stem from paternal minority identity per se.
    Keywords: I21 ; J15 ; J16 ; ddc:330 ; Ethnic Identity ; Second-Generation Immigrants ; Education ; Migranten ; Kulturelle Identität ; Bildungsverhalten ; Bildungsniveau ; Generationenbeziehungen ; Schätzung ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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