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  • 1
    ISSN: 1056-3466
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract The CO2 concentration of the atmosphere has increased by almost 30% since 1800. This increase is due largely to two factors: the combustion of fossil fuel and deforestation to create croplands and pastures. Deforestation results in a net flux of carbon to the atmosphere because forests contain 20-50 times more carbon per unit area than agricultural lands. In recent decades, the tropics have been the primary region of deforestation. The annual rate of CO2 released due to tropical deforestation during the early 1990s has been estimated at between 1.2 and 2.3 gigatons C. The range represents uncertainties about both the rates of deforestation and the amounts of carbon stored in different types of tropical forests at the time of cutting. An evaluation of the role of tropical regions in the global carbon budget must include both the carbon flux to the atmosphere due to deforestation and carbon accumulation, if any, in intact forests. In the early 1990s, the release of CO2 from tropical deforestation appears to have been mostly offset by CO2 uptake occurring elsewhere in the tropics, according to an analysis of recent trends in the atmospheric concentrations of O2 and N2. Interannual variations in climate and/or CO2 fertilization may have been responsible for the CO2 uptake in intact forests. These mechanisms are consistent with site-specific measurements of net carbon fluxes between tropical forests and the atmosphere, and with regional and global simulations using process-based biogeochemistry models.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1056-3466
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract A total of 176 countries have ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, thereby agreeing to limit emissions of greenhouse gases that threaten to interfere with the Earth's climate. While compliance procedures are being developed, the best indicators of implementation of the Convention are the emissions inventories of greenhouse gases that member countries must submit to the Convention as part of their national communications. We review some of the first emissions inventories from non-Annex I (developing) countries. We focus on land-use change and forestry because these activities are responsible for the major emissions of carbon in many non-Annex I parties, and because they are the only activities with the potential to remove carbon from the atmosphere and sequester it on land. The review shows first, that some developing countries have already begun to reduce emissions and second, that there are significant discrepancies between the data used in the emissions inventories and the data available in international surveys. Conceptual uncertainties also exist, such as distinguishing anthropogenic from nonanthropogenic sinks of carbon, and these will require political rather than scientific resolution. We discuss several options for counting terrestrial sources and sinks of carbon in light of the Kyoto Protocol.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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