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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-07-06
    Description: A flexible coupling of power and heat sectors can contribute to both renewable energy integration and decarbonization. We present a literature review of model-based analyses in this field, focusing on residential heating. We compare geographical and temporal research scopes and identify state-of-the-art analytical model formulations, particularly considering heat pumps and thermal storage. While numerical findings are idiosyncratic to specific assumptions, a synthesis of results indicates that power-to-heat technologies can cost-effectively contribute to fossil fuel substitution, renewable integration, and decarbonization. Heat pumps and passive thermal storage emerge as particularly favorable options.
    Keywords: C61 ; D62 ; Q42 ; ddc:330 ; Power-to-heat ; Renewable energy ; Decarbonization ; Heat pump ; Thermal energy storage
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 2
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    Amsterdam: Elsevier | ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2018-01-25
    Description: We study the strategic utilization of storage in imperfect electricity markets. We apply a game-theoretic Cournot model to the German power market and analyze different counterfactual and realistic cases of pumped hydro storage. Our main finding is that both storage utilization and storage-related welfare effects depend on storage ownership and the operator's involvement in conventional generation. Strategic operators generally under-utilize owned storage capacity. Strategic storage operation may also lead to welfare losses, in particular if the total storage capacity is controlled by an oligopolistic generator that also owns conventional generation capacity. Yet in the current German situation, pumped hydro storage is not a relevant source of market power.
    Description: This is a postprint of an article published in Energy Journal 32 (2011), 3, p. 59-87, available online at: http://dx.doi.org/10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol32-No3-3
    Keywords: Q40 ; Q41 ; L13 ; D43 ; ddc:330 ; Electric Power Markets ; Storage ; Market Power ; Nash-Cournot ; Elektrizität ; Wasserversorgung ; Wasserwirtschaft ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-01-25
    Description: In theory, individual producer responsibility (IPR) creates incentives for "design-for-recycling". Yet in practice, implementing IPR is challenging, particularly if applied to waste electric and electronic equipment. This article discusses different options for implementing IPR schemes and producers' under German WEEE legislation. In addition, practical aspects of a German "return share" brand sampling scheme are examined. Concerning "new" WEEE put on the market after 13 August 2006, producers in Germany can choose between two different methods of calculating take-back obligations. These can be determined on the basis of "return shares" or "market shares". While market shares are regularly monitored by a national clearing house, the "return share" option requires sampling and sorting of WEEE. Herein itis shown that the specifics of the German WEEE take-back scheme require high sample sizes and multi-step test procedures to ensure a statistically sound sampling approach. Since the market share allocation continues to apply for historic waste, producers lack incentives for choosing the costly brand sampling option. However, even return share allocation might not imply a decisive step towards IPR, as it merely represents an alternative calculation of market shares. Yet the fundamental characteristics of the German take-back system remain unchanged: the same anonymous mix of WEEE goes to the same treatment operations. In the future, radio frequency identification-based sorting options could foster IPR and incentives for changes in product design.
    Description: Dieser Beitrag ist mit Zustimmung des Rechteinhabers aufgrund einer (DFG-geförderten) Allianz- bzw. Nationallizenz frei zugänglich. - This publication is with permission of the rights owner freely accessible due to an Alliance licence and a national licence (funded by the DFG, German Research Foundation) respectively.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Individual producer responsibility (IPR) ; extended producer responsibility (EPR) ; waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) ; return share ; brand sorting ; collection ; cost allocation ; Umweltmanagement ; Elektroindustrie ; Abfallentsorgung ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 4
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    Amsterdam: Elsevier | ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2018-01-25
    Description: Despite political activities to foster a low-carbon energy transition, Germany currently sees a considerable number of new coal power plants being added to its power mix. There are several possible drivers for this "dash for coal", but it is widely accepted that windfall profits gained through free allocation of ETS certificates play an important role. Yet the quantification of allocation-related investment distortions has been limited to back-of-the envelope calculations and stylized models so far. We close this gap with a numerical model integrating both Germany's particular allocation rules and its specific power generation structure. We find that technology specific new entrant provisions have substantially increased incentives to invest in hard coal plants red to natural gas at the time of the ETS onset. More precisely, disproportionate windfall profits compared more than half the total capital costs of a hard coal plant. Moreover, shorter periods of free allocations would not have turned investors' favours towards the cleaner natural gas technology because of pre-existing economic advantages for coal. In contrast, full auctioning of permits or a single best available technology benchmark would have made natural gas the predominant technology of choice.
    Description: This is a postprint of an article published in Energy Policy 39 (2011), 4, S. 1975-1987, available online at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2011.01.027
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Electricity sector investments ; Windfall profits ; ETS allocations ; Energieökonomik ; Emissionshandel ; Allokation ; Energiemarkt ; Investition ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 5
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    Amsterdam: Elsevier | ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2018-01-25
    Description: DSM (demand-side management) merits increased attention by power system modelers. Numerical models should incorporate DSM constraints in a complete and consistent way. Otherwise, flawed DSM patterns and distorted conclusions on the system benefits of demand-side management are inevitable. Building on a model formulation put forward by Göransson et al. (2014), it is first suggested to include an additional constraint that resolves the problem of undue DSM recovery. Afterwards, an alternative model is introduced that does not impose a specific temporal structure on load shifts and thus increases the real-world applicability of DSM modeling. The formulation presented here, which is both concise and linear, could readily be included in a wide range of numerical models.
    Description: This is the accepted manuscript of an article published in Energy vol. 84 (2015), p. 840-845, available online at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2015.03.037
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Demand-side management ; Demand response ; Load shifting ; Energy modeling ; Energieökonomik ; Energieversorgung ; Elektrizitätswirtschaft ; Nachfrage
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 6
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    Amsterdam: Elsevier | ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2018-01-25
    Description: We analyze the impacts of future scenarios of electric vehicles (EVs) on the German power system, drawing on different assumptions on the charging mode. We find that the impact on the load duration curve strongly differs between charging modes. In a fully user-driven mode, charging largely occurs during daytime and in the evening, when power demand is already high. User-driven charging may thus have to be restricted because of generation adequacy concerns. In contrast, cost-driven charging is carried out during night-time and at times of high PV availability. Using a novel model formulation that allows for simulating intermediate charging modes, we show that even a slight relaxation of fully user-driven charging results in much smoother load profiles. Further, cost-driven EV charging strongly increases the utilization of hard coal and lignite plants in 2030, whereas additional power in the user-driven mode is predominantly generated from natural gas and hard coal. Specific CO2 emissions of EVs are substantially higher than those of the overall power system, and highest under cost-driven charging. Only in additional model runs, in which we link the introduction of EVs to a respective deployment of additional renewables, electric vehicles become largely CO2-neutral.
    Description: This is the preprint of an article published in Applied Energy vol. 156 (2015), p. 185-196, available online at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.07.012
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Electric vehicles ; Power system ; Dispatch model ; Renewable energy ; Energieökonomik ; Energieforschung ; Klimawandel ; Energieversorgung ; Schätzung ; Kohle ; Erneuerbare Ressourcen ; Deutschland ; Kraftfahrzeug
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 7
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    Amsterdam: Elsevier | ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2018-01-25
    Description: The increasing utilization of renewable energy sources (RES) is a major energy policy strategy in many countries worldwide. Germany is a forerunner in the deployment of RES and has ambitious goals for the future. The support and use of renewables affects the economy: It creates business opportunities in sectors producing renewable energy facilities, but comes with costs related to supporting its deployment. This paper analyses and quantifies the net balance of economic effects associated with renewable energy deployment in Germany until 2030. To this end, we use a novel model, the ‘Sectoral Energy-Economic Econometric Model’. This is an econometric multi-country model which, for Germany, contains a detailed representation of industries, including 14 renewable energy technology sectors. Our results show that renewable energy expansion can be achieved without compromising growth or employment. The analysis reveals a positive net effect on economic growth in Germany. Net employment effects are small, but also positive. Their size depends strongly on labour market conditions and policies. Results at the industry level indicate the size and direction of the need for restructuring across the sectors of the Germany economy.
    Description: This is the preprint of an article published in Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 40 (2014), pp. 1070-1080, available online at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2014.07.134
    Keywords: Q43 ; Q52 ; C5 ; ddc:330 ; Renewable energy ; Net economic effects ; Germany ; Energieversorgung ; Erneuerbare Ressourcen ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 8
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    Amsterdam: Elsevier | ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2018-01-25
    Description: I examine the effects of increasing amounts of fluctuating renewable energy on residual load, which is defined as the difference between actual power demand and the feed-in of non-dispatchable and inflexible generators. I draw on policy-relevant scenarios for Germany and make use of extensive sensitivity analyses. Whereas yearly renewable surplus energy is low in most scenarios analyzed, peak surplus power can become very high. Decreasing thermal must-run requirements and increasing biomass flexibility substantially reduce surpluses. I use an optimization model to determine the storage capacities required for taking up renewable surpluses. Allowing curtailment of 1% of the yearly feed-in of non-dispatchable renewables would render storage investments largely obsolete until 2032 under the assumption of a flexible power system. Further restrictions of curtailment as well as lower system flexibility strongly increase storage requirements. By 2050, at least 10 GW of storage are required for surplus integration, of which a sizeable share is seasonal storage. Results suggest that policy makers should work toward avoiding surplus generation, in particular by decreasing the must-run of thermal generators. Concerns about surpluses should not be regarded as an obstacle to further renewable expansion. The findings are also relevant for other countries that shift toward fluctuating renewables.
    Description: This is the preprint of an article published in Energy Policy 73 (2014), pp. 65-79, available online at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2014.05.032
    Keywords: Q42 ; Q47 ; Q48 ; ddc:330 ; Renewable energy ; Residual load ; Storage ; Erneuerbare Ressourcen ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 9
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    Amsterdam: Elsevier | ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2018-08-10
    Description: We use a game-theoretic model to analyze the impacts of a hypothetical fleet of plug-in electric vehicles on the imperfectly competitive German electricity market. Electric vehicles bring both additional demand and additional storage capacity to the market. We determine the effects on prices, welfare, and electricity generation for various cases with different players in charge of vehicle operations. Vehicle loading increases generator profits, but decreases consumer surplus in the power market. If excess vehicle batteries can be used for storage, welfare results are reversed: generating firms suffer from the price-smoothing effect of additional storage, whereas power consumers benefit despite increasing overall demand. Strategic players tend to under-utilize the storage capacity of the vehicle fleet, which may have negative welfare implications. In contrast, we find a market power-mitigating effect of electric vehicle recharging on oligopolistic generators. Overall, electric vehicles are unlikely to be a relevant source of market power in Germany in the foreseeable future.
    Description: © 2015.This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
    Keywords: Q40 ; Q41 ; L13 ; D43 ; ddc:330 ; Electric vehicles ; Vehicle-to-Grid ; Market power ; Elektroindustrie ; Mobilität ; Kraftfahrzeug ; Elektrofahrzeug
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-04
    Description: The use of renewable energy sources is a major strategy to mitigate climate change. Yet Sinn (2017) argues that excessive electrical storage requirements limit the further expansion of variable wind and solar energy. We question, and alter, strong implicit assumptions of Sinn’s approach and find that storage needs are considerably lower, up to two orders of magnitude. First, we move away from corner solutions by allowing for combinations of storage and renewable curtailment. Second, we specify a parsimonious optimization model that explicitly considers an economic efficiency perspective. We conclude that electrical storage is unlikely to limit the transition to renewable energy.
    Keywords: O33 ; Q21 ; Q41 ; Q42 ; ddc:330 ; Variable renewable energy sources ; Wind ; Solar ; Energy storage
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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