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  • 1
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 47 (7). pp. 1685-1699.
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Seasonal variability in pathways of warm water masses toward the Kangerdlugssuaq Fjord-Glacier system (KF/KG), southeast Greenland, is investigated by backtracking Lagrangian particles seeded at the fjord mouth in a high-resolution regional ocean model simulation in the ice-free and the ice-covered seasons. The waters at KF are a mixture of Atlantic-origin water advected from the Irminger Basin (FF for Faxaflói), the deep waters from the Denmark Strait and the waters from the Arctic Ocean, both represented by the Kögur section (KO). Below 200m depth, the warm water is a mixture of FF and KO water masses, and is warmer in winter than in summer. We find that seasonal differences in pathways double the fraction of FF particles in winter, causing the seasonal warming and salinification. Seasonal temperature variations at the upstream sections (FF and KO) have a negligible impact on temperature variations near the fjord. Successful monitoring of heat flux to the fjord therefore needs to take place close to the fjord, and cannot be inferred from upstream conditions.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2012. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Climate 25 (2012): 6743–6755, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00549.1.
    Description: From 1969 to 1971 convection in the Labrador Sea shut down, thus interrupting the formation of the intermediate/dense water masses. The shutdown has been attributed to the surface freshening induced by the Great Salinity Anomaly (GSA), a freshwater anomaly in the subpolar North Atlantic. The abrupt resumption of convection in 1972, in contrast, is attributed to the extreme atmospheric forcing of that winter. Here oceanic and atmospheric data collected in the Labrador Sea at Ocean Weather Station Bravo and a one-dimensional mixed layer model are used to examine the causes of the shutdown and resumption of convection in detail. These results highlight the tight coupling of the ocean and atmosphere in convection regions and the need to resolve both components to correctly represent convective processes in the ocean. They are also relevant to present-day conditions given the increased ice melt in the Arctic Ocean and from the Greenland Ice Sheet. The analysis herein shows that the shutdown was initiated by the GSA-induced freshening as well as the mild 1968/69 winter. After the shutdown had begun, however, the continuing lateral freshwater flux as well as two positive feedbacks [both associated with the sea surface temperature (SST) decrease due to lack of convective mixing with warmer subsurface water] further inhibited convection. First, the SST decrease reduced the heat flux to the atmosphere by reducing the air–sea temperature gradient. Second, it further reduced the surface buoyancy loss by reducing the thermal expansion coefficient of the surface water. In 1972 convection resumed because of both the extreme atmospheric forcing and advection of saltier waters into the convection region.
    Description: This research was funded by a grant from the NWO/SRON User Support Programme Space Research. FS acknowledges support from OCE- 0850416 and NOAA NA08OAR4310569.
    Description: 2013-04-01
    Keywords: Atmosphere-ocean interaction ; Intermediate waters ; Oceanic variability
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-06-13
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2017. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Physical Oceanography 47 (2017): 2999-3013, doi:10.1175/JPO-D-17-0129.1.
    Description: Initial results are presented from a yearlong, high-resolution (~2 km) numerical simulation covering the east Greenland shelf and the Iceland and Irminger Seas. The model hydrography and circulation in the vicinity of Denmark Strait show good agreement with available observational datasets. This study focuses on the variability of the Denmark Strait overflow (DSO) by detecting and characterizing boluses and pulses, which are the two dominant mesoscale features in the strait. The authors estimate that the yearly mean southward volume flux of the DSO is about 30% greater in the presence of boluses and pulses. On average, boluses (pulses) are 57.1 (27.5) h long, occur every 3.2 (5.5) days, and are more frequent during the summer (winter). Boluses (pulses) increase (decrease) the overflow cross-sectional area, and temperatures around the overflow interface are colder (warmer) by about 2.6°C (1.8°C). The lateral extent of the boluses is much greater than that of the pulses. In both cases the along-strait equatorward flow of dense water is enhanced but more so for pulses. The sea surface height (SSH) rises by 4–10 cm during boluses and by up to 5 cm during pulses. The SSH anomaly contours form a bowl (dome) during boluses (pulses), and the two features cross the strait with a slightly different orientation. The cross streamflow changes direction; boluses (pulses) are associated with veering (backing) of the horizontal current. The model indicates that boluses and pulses play a major role in controlling the variability of the DSO transport into the Irminger Sea.
    Description: This work was supported by the NSF Grants OCE-1433448, OCE-1633124, and OCE- 1259618 and the Institute for Data Intensive Engineering and Science (IDIES) seed grant funding.
    Description: 2018-06-13
    Keywords: North Atlantic Ocean ; Mesoscale processes ; Ocean models ; Regional models
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-11-01
    Print ISSN: 0022-3670
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-0485
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2012-10-01
    Print ISSN: 0894-8755
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-0442
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences , Physics
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