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  • 1
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: A Langmuir probe has been used as a diagnostic of the temporally evolving electron component within a laser ablated Cu plasma expanding into vacuum, for an incident laser power density on target similar to that used for the pulsed laser deposition of thin films. Electron temperature data were obtained from the retarding region of the probe current/voltage (I/V) characteristic, which was also used to calculate an associated electron number density. Additionally, electron number density data were obtained from the saturation electron current region of the probe (I/V) characteristic. Electron number density data, extracted by the two different techniques, were observed to show the same temporal form, with measured absolute values agreeing to within a factor of 2. The Langmuir probe, in the saturation current region, has been shown for the first time to be a convenient diagnostic of the electron component within relatively low temperature laser ablated plasma plumes. © 1999 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-07-19
    Description: The effect of a thin Mo dusting layer inserted at the interface of Ta/CoFeB of perpendicular magnetic tunneling junction with MgO barriers was investigated. Unlike thick Mo layers that exhibited a strong (110) crystalline texture, the inserted Mo layer between Ta/CoFeB had little negative influence on the crystallization of CoFe (001), therefore combining the advantages of Mo as a good thermal barrier and Ta as a good boron sink. For optimized Mo dusting thickness, a large tunneling magnetoresistance of 208% was achieved in perpendicular magnetic tunneling junctions with superior thermal stability at 500 °C.
    Print ISSN: 0003-6951
    Electronic ISSN: 1077-3118
    Topics: Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-08-10
    Description: The overshoot and undershoot of the applied voltage on the electrodes, the discharge current, and radio frequency (RF) power were observed at the initial phase of pulse-modulated (PM) RF atmospheric pressure discharges, but factors influencing the overshoot and undershoot have not been fully elucidated. In this paper, the experimental studies were performed to seek the reasons for the overshoot and undershoot. The experimental results show that the overshoot and undershoot are associated with the pulse frequency, the rise time of pulse signal, and the series capacitor C s in the inversely L -shaped matching network. In the case of a high RF power discharge, these overshoot and undershoot become serious when shortening the rise time of a pulse signal (5 ns) or operating at a moderate pulse frequency (500 Hz or 1 kHz).
    Print ISSN: 1070-664X
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-7674
    Topics: Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2016-06-01
    Description: This work investigates the promise of a “bottom-up” extended ensemble framework for developing coarse-grained (CG) models that provide predictive accuracy and transferability for describing both structural and thermodynamic properties. We employ a force-matching variational principle to determine system-independent, i.e., transferable, interaction potentials that optimally model the interactions in five distinct heptane-toluene mixtures. Similarly, we employ a self-consistent pressure-matching approach to determine a system-specific pressure correction for each mixture. The resulting CG potentials accurately reproduce the site-site rdfs, the volume fluctuations, and the pressure equations of state that are determined by all-atom (AA) models for the five mixtures. Furthermore, we demonstrate that these CG potentials provide similar accuracy for additional heptane-toluene mixtures that were not included their parameterization. Surprisingly, the extended ensemble approach improves not only the transferability but also the accuracy of the calculated potentials. Additionally, we observe that the required pressure corrections strongly correlate with the intermolecular cohesion of the system-specific CG potentials. Moreover, this cohesion correlates with the relative “structure” within the corresponding mapped AA ensemble. Finally, the appendix demonstrates that the self-consistent pressure-matching approach corresponds to minimizing an appropriate relative entropy.
    Print ISSN: 0021-9606
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-7690
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2015-12-16
    Description: The present work investigates the capability of bottom-up coarse-graining (CG) methods for accurately modeling both structural and thermodynamic properties of all-atom (AA) models for molecular liquids. In particular, we consider 1, 2, and 3-site CG models for heptane, as well as 1 and 3-site CG models for toluene. For each model, we employ the multiscale coarse-graining method to determine interaction potentials that optimally approximate the configuration dependence of the many-body potential of mean force (PMF). We employ a previously developed “pressure-matching” variational principle to determine a volume-dependent contribution to the potential, U V ( V ), that approximates the volume-dependence of the PMF. We demonstrate that the resulting CG models describe AA density fluctuations with qualitative, but not quantitative, accuracy. Accordingly, we develop a self-consistent approach for further optimizing U V , such that the CG models accurately reproduce the equilibrium density, compressibility, and average pressure of the AA models, although the CG models still significantly underestimate the atomic pressure fluctuations. Additionally, by comparing this array of models that accurately describe the structure and thermodynamic pressure of heptane and toluene at a range of different resolutions, we investigate the impact of bottom-up coarse-graining upon thermodynamic properties. In particular, we demonstrate that U V accounts for the reduced cohesion in the CG models. Finally, we observe that bottom-up coarse-graining introduces subtle correlations between the resolution, the cohesive energy density, and the “simplicity” of the model.
    Print ISSN: 0021-9606
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-7690
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2015-09-16
    Description: The lifetime of an atom trap is often limited by the presence of residual background gases in the vacuum chamber. This leads to the lifetime being inversely proportional to the pressure. Here, we use this dependence to estimate the pressure and to obtain pressure rate-of-rise curves, which are commonly used in vacuum science to evaluate the performance of a system. We observe different rates of pressure increase in response to different levels of outgassing in our system. Therefore, we suggest that this is a sensitive method which will find useful applications in cold atom systems, in particular, where the inclusion of a standard vacuum gauge is impractical.
    Print ISSN: 0034-6748
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-7623
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2015-08-13
    Print ISSN: 1070-664X
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-7674
    Topics: Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2015-09-03
    Description: By eliminating unnecessary degrees of freedom, coarse-grained (CG) models tremendously facilitate numerical calculations and theoretical analyses of complex phenomena. However, their success critically depends upon the representation of the system and the effective potential that governs the CG degrees of freedom. This work investigates the relationship between the CG representation and the many-body potential of mean force (PMF), W , which is the appropriate effective potential for a CG model that exactly preserves the structural and thermodynamic properties of a given high resolution model. In particular, we investigate the entropic component of the PMF and its dependence upon the CG resolution. This entropic component, S W , is a configuration-dependent relative entropy that determines the temperature dependence of W . As a direct consequence of eliminating high resolution details from the CG model, the coarsening process transfers configurational entropy and information from the configuration space into S W . In order to further investigate these general results, we consider the popular Gaussian Network Model (GNM) for protein conformational fluctuations. We analytically derive the exact PMF for the GNM as a function of the CG representation. In the case of the GNM, − TS W is a positive, configuration-independent term that depends upon the temperature, the complexity of the protein interaction network, and the details of the CG representation. This entropic term demonstrates similar behavior for seven model proteins and also suggests, in each case, that certain resolutions provide a more efficient description of protein fluctuations. These results may provide general insight into the role of resolution for determining the information content, thermodynamic properties, and transferability of CG models. Ultimately, they may lead to a rigorous and systematic framework for optimizing the representation of CG models.
    Electronic ISSN: 1931-9223
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2015-09-03
    Description: By eliminating unnecessary degrees of freedom, coarse-grained (CG) models tremendously facilitate numerical calculations and theoretical analyses of complex phenomena. However, their success critically depends upon the representation of the system and the effective potential that governs the CG degrees of freedom. This work investigates the relationship between the CG representation and the many-body potential of mean force (PMF), W , which is the appropriate effective potential for a CG model that exactly preserves the structural and thermodynamic properties of a given high resolution model. In particular, we investigate the entropic component of the PMF and its dependence upon the CG resolution. This entropic component, S W , is a configuration-dependent relative entropy that determines the temperature dependence of W . As a direct consequence of eliminating high resolution details from the CG model, the coarsening process transfers configurational entropy and information from the configuration space into S W . In order to further investigate these general results, we consider the popular Gaussian Network Model (GNM) for protein conformational fluctuations. We analytically derive the exact PMF for the GNM as a function of the CG representation. In the case of the GNM, − TS W is a positive, configuration-independent term that depends upon the temperature, the complexity of the protein interaction network, and the details of the CG representation. This entropic term demonstrates similar behavior for seven model proteins and also suggests, in each case, that certain resolutions provide a more efficient description of protein fluctuations. These results may provide general insight into the role of resolution for determining the information content, thermodynamic properties, and transferability of CG models. Ultimately, they may lead to a rigorous and systematic framework for optimizing the representation of CG models.
    Print ISSN: 0021-9606
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-7690
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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