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  • 1
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: We demonstrate that fiber-optic probes with an intermediate section followed by a rapidly tapering tip lead to transmission efficiency enhancement of better than four orders-of-magnitude at 60 nm tip diameter and more than five orders-of-magnitude at smaller than 40 nm tip diameter over typical taffy-pulled fiber probes. Our highest resolution probes have a tip diameter of 30 nm with a transmission efficiency of 0.02%, and as an example we image tobacco mosaic virus with a resolution better than 35 nm. The probes are made in a two-step process involving pulling and then etching that permits both high efficiency and control of the mechanical resonance properties. The efficiency is enhanced by reducing the distance that the electromagnetic mode travels in the cut-off mode of the fiber probe. The higher resolution is achieved because sharper tips can be made through the etching process. © 1997 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 67 (1995), S. 869-871 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: A new simple transport model is used to describe the dependence of the electrical characteristics of the epitaxial layer on the growth parameters in low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The important parameters of this model are the mean velocity of the gases and the [V]/[III] ratio. Undoped GaAs epitaxial layers are prepared at various operating pressures. A semi-empirical correlation relating the reactor pressure and flow rate is established that dictates the operating conditions for a single set of film properties. This enables growth of a material with constant characteristics while pressure can be varied. © 1995 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 64 (1994), S. 1442-1444 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: This letter presents a technique for performing localized noncontact measurements of high frequency signals on integrated circuits using a scanned force microscope. The technique extracts the amplitude and phase of the signal voltage at a point on the circuit by nulling the electrostatic force interaction between a small driven probe and the test point. A heterodyne approach is used to enable the measurement of high frequency signals, including frequencies which are much greater than the mechanical resonance of the probe mechanism. Accurate measurements can be performed without complex calibration requirements and are not sensitive to dc offset effects.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 59 (1991), S. 1878-1880 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: A pump-probe, light by light deflection technique employing 120 fs pulses at λ=620 nm has been used to measure the temporal and irradiance (I) dependence of the refractive index (n) in 100-μm-thick single crystals of CdS0.75Se0.25 and CdS at 295 K. For I〈3 GW/cm2 only instantaneous negative changes in n are observed and are attributed to Stark and two-photon resonance effects while for higher I negative changes with onset times of approximately 2 ps are attributed to the cooling of two-photon generated carriers. For I(approximately-greater-than)30 GW/cm2 a partial recovery of n occurs within 10 ps and is attributed to possible threshold dependent recombination processes. The variation of probe-beam deflection with pump irradiance has been determined for different probe delays and related to two photon absorption of the pump beam.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: A study of the effects of annealing temperature on phosphorus-implanted silicon films is carried out. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy has been performed with two different instruments in the spectral ranges of 0.75–4 μm and 3–25 μm. In the first spectrum range special attention was given to the influence of implantation dose on reflectivity. The minimum reflectivity associated with plasma resonance has been fully employed for estimation of the electrical activation of implanted impurities. Other conclusions concerning the activation of free carriers (implanted impurities) with implantation dose and annealing temperature have been reached.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 67 (1990), S. 5961-5963 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: This cubic pseudobinary compound with antiferromagnetic order and spin-glass properties below Tg (36 K) was studied by magnetization-vector measurements on a field-cooled (FC) polycrystalline sample disk rotated in various fixed fields (H). At 4.2 K, the FC-induced anisotropy field HK is seen to turn rigidly with the sample for all rotation angles (θ≤180°) even at H=15 kOe, and since the rotational magnetization follows HK very closely, it is deduced that HK 〉100 kOe. At 20 K, HK turns rigidly, but only below a threshold field, above which HK rotates up to some critical angle relative to H, where it remains as the sample continues to turn. Thus HK rotates frictionally relative to the sample. Nevertheless, it is found that its magnitude continues to exceed 100 kOe.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 63 (1988), S. 4340-4342 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Magnetization-versus-temperature (M-vs-T) measurements in a fixed field on cubic pseudobinary Tb0.3Y0.7Ag show that M for increasing and then decreasing T bifurcates at the antiferromagnetic Néel point (TN=36 K), where M is maximum. The resulting thermoremanence (MR), which decays very slowly with time, diminishes with increasing T and vanishes at TN. Thus, the long-range antiferromagnetism appears to coexist with spin-glass ordering. Measurements of MR with increasing T were also made for different cooling fields (Hc1) The changes of MR with Hcl and T are found to reduce to a universal relationship between the temperature-normalized quantities, m=MR/M0(T) and h=Hcl /H0(T). Setting both the initial slope of m vs h and the saturation m at high h equal to unity, we determine that M0(T)=M0(0) exp (−T/T0), with M0(0)=0.82μB/Tb atom and T0=4.3 K, and that H0(T) varies analogously, with H0(0)=225 kOe and the same T0. A similar temperature scaling of MR vs Hcl , with similar exponential forms for M0(T) and H0(T), has been deduced earlier for Ag-Mn and other canonical spin glasses.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Persistent photoconductivity has been observed at low temperatures in thin, unintentionally doped GaInP/GaAs/GaInP quantum wells. The two-dimensional electron gas was studied by low field Hall and Shubnikov–de Haas effects. After illumination with red light, the electron concentration increased from low 1011 cm−2 to more than 7×1011 cm−2 resulting in an enhancement of both the carrier mobility and the quantum lifetime. The persistent photocarriers cannot be produced by DX-like defects since the shallow dopant concentration in the GaInP layers is too low to produce the observed concentration. We suggest that the persistent carriers are produced by photoionization of deep intrinsic donors in the GaInP barrier layer. We also report observation of a parallel conduction path in GaInP induced by extended illumination. © 1995 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 66 (1995), S. 2125-2127 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: A Se chemical passivation [(NH4)2S+Se] for GaAs Schottky diodes is presented. We have found that our (NH4)2S+Se passivated Schottky diodes have more than one order of magnitude higher forward current density than the (NH4)2Sx passivated ones. In rapid thermal annealing treatment, an initial decrease and then increase of forward current density for (NH4)2Sx passivated diodes is observed. For the (NH4)2S+Se and (NH4)OH treated diodes, a steady decrease of Schottky barrier height with increased annealing temperature is observed. With or without annealing treatment, the (NH4)2S+Se passivated diodes have the lowest barrier height. © 1995 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: We have observed a negative persistent photoconductivity effect in In0.25Ga0.75Sb/InAs quantum wells with Shubnikov–de Haas measurements. The saturated reduction of the electron density in the InAs well was about 10%. The electron effective mass was found to be (0.048±0.004) m0 for an electron density of 18.0×1011 cm−2. The electron quantum lifetime decreased as the electron density was reduced by the negative persistent photoconductivity effect due to electron-hole interaction.
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