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  • 1
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: The 100 ns, 20 MA pinch-driver Z is surrounded by an extensive set of diagnostics. There are nine radial lines of sight set at 12° above horizontal and each of these may be equipped with up to five diagnostic ports. Instruments routinely fielded viewing the pinch from the side with these ports include x-ray diode arrays, photoconducting detector arrays, bolometers, transmission grating spectrometers, time-resolved x-ray pinhole cameras, x-ray crystal spectrometers, calorimeters, silicon photodiodes, and neutron detectors. A diagnostic package fielded on axis for viewing internal pinch radiation consists of nine lines of sight. This package accommodates virtually the same diagnostics as the radial ports. Other diagnostics not fielded on the axial or radial ports include current B-dot monitors, filtered x-ray scintillators coupled by fiber optics to streak cameras, streaked visible spectroscopy, velocity interferometric system for any reflector, bremsstrahlung cameras, and active shock breakout measurement of hohlraum temperature. The data acquisition system is capable of recording up to 500 channels and the data from each shot is available on the Internet. A major new diagnostic presently under construction is the BEAMLET backlighter. We will briefly describe each of these diagnostics and present some of the highest-quality data from them. © 2001 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: Three x-ray spectrometers, each with a transmission grating dispersion element, are routinely used at the Z soft x-ray facility to measure the spectrum and temporal history of the absolute soft x-ray power emitted from z-pinch and hohlraum radiation sources. Our goal is to make these measurements within an accuracy of ±10%. We periodically characterize the efficiency of the gratings used in the spectrometers by using an electron-impact soft x-ray source, a monochromator, grazing-incidence mirrors, thin filters, and an x-ray charge-coupled device (CCD) detector. We measure the transmission efficiency of the gratings at many photon energies for several grating orders. For each grating, we calculate efficiency as a function of photon energy using published optical constants of gold and multiple-slit Fraunhofer diffraction theory and fit the calculation to the measurements using the physical parameters of the grating as variables. This article describes the measurement apparatus and calibration techniques, discusses the grating efficiency calculation and fitting procedure, and presents recent results.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: X-ray powers on the order of 10 TW over an area of 4.5 mm2 are produced in the axial direction from the compression of a low-density foam target centered within a z-pinch on the Z generator.1 The x rays from this source are used for high-energy–density physics experiments, including the heating of hohlraums for inertial confinements fusion studies.2 In this article, detailed characteristics of this radiation source measured using an upgraded axial-radiation-diagnostic suite3 together with other on- and off-axis diagnostics are summarized and discussed in terms of Eulerian and Lagrangian radiation–magnetohydrodynamic code simulations. The source, characterized here, employs a nested array of 10-mm-long tungsten wires, at radii of 20 and 10 mm, having a total masses of 2 and 1 mg, and wire numbers of 240 and 120, respectively. The target is a 14 mg/cc CH2 foam cylinder of 5 mm diameter. The codes take into account the development of the Rayleigh–Taylor instability in the r–z plane, and provide integrated calculations of the implosion together with the x-ray generation. The radiation exiting the imploding target through the 4.5 mm2 aperture is measured primarily by the axial diagnostic suite that now includes diagnostics at an angle of ∼30° to the z axis. The near on-axis diagnostics include: (1) a seven-element filtered silicon-diode array,4 (2) a five-element filtered x-ray diffraction (XRD) array,5 (3) a six-element filtered PCD array,6 (4) a three-element bolometer,7 (5) time-resolved and time-integrating crystal spectrometers, and (6) two fast-framing x-ray pinhole cameras having 11 frames each. The filtered silicon diodes, XRDs, and PCDs are sensitive to 1–200, 140–2300, and 1000–4000 eV x rays, respectively. They (1) establish the magnitude of the prepluse generated during the run in of the imploding wire arrays, (2) measure the Planckian nature of the dominant thermal, and (3) nonthermal component of the emission. The bolometers and XRDs mounted on the near-normal and 30° LOS (line-of-sight) measure the total power and check the Lambertian nature of the emission. Additionally, a suite of filtered fast-framing x-ray pinhole cameras and silicon-diode arrays behind a transmission grating, mounted on LOSs nearly normal to the z axis, quantify the plasma plume exiting the aperture. The hard bremsstrahlung generated is estimated with both on- and off-axis shielded scintillator photomultiplier diagnostics. © 2001 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: Measurements of the hohlraum wall temperature in Z-pinch driven hohlraum experiments require looking through small (2–4 mm diameter) diagnostic holes that undergo some degree of hole closure. The existing soft x-ray diagnostics on Z measure the total flux exiting this diagnostic hole and are therefore affected by this hole closure. To avoid having to measure the effective diagnostic hole area we have designed and constructed an imaging diode array (IDA) that incorporates pinhole imaging and an array of filtered silicon diodes to measure the absolute x-ray intensity from a spatially resolved region of a target. The instrument uses silicon diodes with subnanosecond time response that are sensitive to soft x rays in the range 100–3000 eV. An image of the target area is projected onto the silicon diodes using pinholes. Between each pinhole and it's respective diode is a soft x-ray filter. The material and thickness of the filter are selected to allow unfolding of spectral information in the 100–3000 eV spectral region. We plan to insert a set of grazing-incidence mirrors between each of the filter/diode pairs in a future version of this instrument to better define the spectral bandpass of each diode channel. Radiation from the target region is monitored by a gated microchannel-plate-intensified image recording device that is located immediately behind the diode array. A small shadow in the recorded image corresponds to the specific area of the target that is imaged onto each silicon diode. We are presently fielding this instrument in experiments on the Z facility located at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, NM. The instrument is located on the same line-of-sight and measures the same spatial region as a filtered fast-framing x-ray pinhole camera and a transmission grating spectrometer. This article describes the design of the IDA diagnostic and presents the results of measurements obtained in hohlraum experiments conducted on Z. © 2001 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: Microchannel plate intensified (MPI) x-ray detectors are commonly used for imaging and spectral measurements in the 100–1500 eV photon energy range. Using a laser-produced plasma x-ray source, we measured the integrated detector response versus incident x-ray intensity and the relative efficiency versus photon energy of a MPI x-ray detector. Two identical 2000 lines/mm transmission grating spectrometers simultaneously record broadband plasma source emission from a tantalum target. The relative efficiency was determined by comparing the spectrum recorded with an absolutely calibrated x-ray CCD reference detector on one spectrometer to the spectrum recorded with a MPI x-ray detector on the other spectrometer. The integrated detector response versus incident x-ray intensity was measured by simultaneously illuminating the CCD reference detector and the MPI detector with step-wedge-filtered magnesium plasma emission. The aluminum step wedge x-ray filters pass the 1s–2p emission lines of H-like Mg at 1470 eV and the 1s2–1s2p emission lines of He-like Mg at 1350 eV, and provide a four order of magnitude range in incident intensity on the detectors.© 1999 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: We report ultrashort pulse, 1 kHz repetition rate x-ray generation in the 5–20 keV spectral region, induced by the interaction of laser radiation with copper nitrate solution and ethylene glycol liquid-jet targets. The characteristics of the copper nitrate source are relevant for application to time-resolved x-ray diffraction studies as well as for spectroscopic x-ray absorption studies. The x-ray sources were operated uninterrupted for in excess of 5 h with no detectable buildup of debris on the associated optics. The x-ray flux generated by both sources is estimated to be of the order of 106 photons s−1 sr−1 in the 5–20 keV region. The spectra have been measured with both a PIN photodiode, and with transmission measurements taken using aluminum filters. We find that the plasma emission has a broadband component attributed to bremsstrahlung emission, with the bulk of the x-ray emission emitted from the chamber lying between 5 and 20 keV for both sources. The copper nitrate emission, however, delivers a dominant emission peak at 9 keV, attributed to the characteristic K emission of copper. © 1998 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Review of Scientific Instruments 64 (1993), S. 3530-3533 
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: A general purpose data acquisition and control system for scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) using Visual Basic is presented. This Windows hosted Visual Basic environment is highly desirable for use in STM image manipulation, storage, and printing, but in its standard form is not suitable for most data acquisition and display applications. Many of the inherent limitations in the Visual Basic language have been overcome by the use of direct calls to the Windows Application Program Interface. In this paper, we describe a general Visual Basic STM user interface and control system, and the extensions to the language using the Windows API needed to implement this system.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: We have constructed an apparatus that is able to maintain a helium-free surface at low temperature (T≤0.1 K) in a cell containing superfluid helium. We discuss the considerations involved in the design of this device, and describe tests that we have made to confirm that a film-free surface has been produced.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: This letter reports the experimental characterization of a z-pinch-driven vacuum hohlraum. We have measured soft x-ray fluxes of 5×1012 W/cm2 radiating from the walls of hohlraums which are 2.4–2.5 cm in diameter by 1 cm tall. The x-ray source used to drive these hohlraums was a z pinch consisting of a 300 wire tungsten array driven by a 20 MA, 100 ns current pulse. In this hohlraum geometry, the z-pinch x-ray source can produce energies in excess of 800 kJ and powers in excess of 100 TW to drive these hohlraums. The x rays released in these hohlraums represent greater than a factor of 25 in energy and more than a factor of 3 in x-ray power over previous laboratory-driven hohlraums. © 1999 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: This study reports UV-photoemission (UPS) measurements made on boron nitride crystals and thin films. The materials examined are commercial grade c-BN powder and thin films of BN deposited with ion beam assisted e-beam evaporation and laser ablation. The thin film samples examined exhibited varying amounts of sp3 (cubic) and sp2 (hexagonal, amorphous) bonding as determined by FTIR measurements. The UPS measurements displayed the spectral distribution of the low energy photoemitted electrons and the total energy width of the spectra. These characteristics can be related to the electron affinity. The measurements on several of the BN powder and thin film samples revealed features in the emission spectra which are indicative of a negative electron affinity (NEA) surface. © 1995 American Institute of Physics.
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