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  • American Institute of Physics (AIP)  (24)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: A computer-controlled rotating polarizer ellipsometer, operating in the infrared spectral region between 3.00 and 3.75 μm, has been developed for in situ characterization of amorphous hydrocarbon (a-C:H) thin films, deposited from methane in a rf plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition reactor. Spectroscopic IR ellipsometry permits insight into the chemical bonding structure of a-C:H coatings by the nondestructive detection of infrared stimulated C:H stretch vibrations. It is shown that the sp2CHx/sp3 CHx ratio, the content of bonded hydrogen, the infrared linewidth, and the real refractive index of the films depend on the negative self-bias voltage, which is formed at the samples during the deposition process. A transition from a-C:H films with polymerlike properties to hard a-C:H films was attained at a self-bias voltage of approximately −75 V.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 69 (1996), S. 46-48 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Six different types of boron nitride films were investigated by polarized infrared reflection spectroscopy. Films with a highly cubic, mixed cubic and noncubic, and exclusively noncubic phase composition were synthesized using ion beam assisted deposition. Additionally, postdeposition argon ion irradiated cubic and noncubic boron nitride films as well as a nitrogen implanted boron sample were analyzed. Using this technique, besides the cubic phase, two different noncubic modifications, layered anisotropic and amorphous, could be distinguished. A preferential orientation of the normal axis of the sp2-bonded basal planes parallel to the substrate surface was observed. © 1996 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 64 (1994), S. 971-973 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Laser-induced fluorescence was applied at the B–X transition of the CH radical to measure absolute densities of the CH radicals in an electron cyclotron resonance methane plasma. The absolute experimental uncertainty is only about 30% due to a new calibration procedure. The CH density correlates well with optical emission from the CH A–X and B–X transitions over a wide pressure range. Experimental results are in satisfactory agreement with predictions from a model based on rate equations for the electron-induced dissociation and ionization of the parent methane gas. This model also includes the interaction of the plasma species with the surrounding walls and the particle transport due to pumping.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 64 (1994), S. 3401-3403 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: A plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition process by means of the so-called running discharge has been developed. Amorphous hydrogenated carbon (C:H) films were deposited over a length of 2.5 m on the inner wall of an assembled waveguide system. The average deposition rate from a running discharge in methane was 0.27 A(ring)/s. An increase of the average deposition rate to 2.6 A(ring)/s was achieved using acetylene as process gas, while the H/C ratio in the C:H films remains nearly constant at one. The breakdown of a discharge in the metallic waveguide has been studied in argon plasmas depending on magnetic field, microwave power, and gas pressure. A sharp transition between a magnetically enhanced localized discharge and a running discharge was observed at increasing pressure in the range of some Pascal at a microwave power of 100 W. The running velocity (∼104 m/s) of the plasma package increases with increasing microwave power and increasing gas pressure. This plasma behavior has been further investigated by means of the power balance and plasma modeling in methane.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 68 (1990), S. 2068-2072 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Hard amorphous films of a-C:D were deposited by a rf glow discharge in CD4. The implantation of 40-keV 3He+ ions in these films was studied as a function of the helium fluence at temperatures between 100 K and room temperature. The trapped amounts of helium and the deuterium losses in the layer were measured in situ using nuclear reaction analysis with 0.5-MeV D+ and 1-MeV 3He+ beams, respectively, and subsequent ex-situ elastic-recoil detection analysis. A transient helium retention appears in the carbonized layers, occurring only at temperatures below 200 K. Above a critical fluence which depends on temperature and ion flux, outdiffusion of He is observed which is ascribed to the formation of diffusion channels by radiation damage. The deuterium depletion induced by helium bombardment below 200 K sets on in correlation with the helium outdiffusion, but is otherwise independent of the helium trapping.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: On Fe films evaporated on pyrolytic graphite, thick C layers segregate during high-temperature (above about 800 K) light ion irradiation if the penetrating ions are energetic enough to reach the Fe-graphite interface. The thickness of the C segregated layer and the C depth distribution in the Fe film have been determined with 2-MeV 4He+ Rutherford backscattering. A steady-state carbon overlayer is reached at high fluences (above about 1019 particles/cm2), the thickness of which depends on the energy of the irradiating beam for a given thickness of the Fe evaporated film. The anisotropic structure of the pyrolytic graphite substrate influences the thickness of the steady-state C overlayer, thicker C layers being measured for edge-oriented C substrates. Using the Monte Carlo code trim, the production of defects in the graphite substrate has been calculated for different thicknesses of the C overlayer. The total amount of defects produced in the graphite substrate has been identified as the parameter regulating the growth and the steady-state value of the C overlayer. With the depth distributions of defect production generated by trim as source functions, the diffusion of C interstitials in graphite under the influence of recombination with vacancies has been modeled. The segregating C fluxes are identified with the fluxes of interstitials arriving at the Fe/graphite substrate interface for a suitable choice of the parameters in the diffusion equation.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 65 (1989), S. 1893-1897 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Depth profiles of 10-keV deuterium implanted in nickel were obtained during implantation through elastic recoil detection between 233 and 313 K. The profiles were allowed to reach saturation at each measured temperature. At the lowest temperature, measurements with various implantation fluxes were performed. Aside from surface peaks, the depth profiles show a uniform density of deuterium in the implanted layer and the shape of these profiles is independent of the sample temperature or implantation fluence or flux. The temperature and fluence dependence could be successfully reproduced with a trapping-detrapping model considering three different trap binding energies. Two of the model parameters are in good agreement with previous calculations performed to reproduce reemission measurements.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 76 (2000), S. 2194-2196 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: A model for the transport of nitrogen in austenitic stainless steel at temperatures around 400 °C is presented and discussed. The model considers the diffusion of nitrogen under the influence of trapping and detrapping at trap sites formed by local chromium. Nitrogen depth profiles simulated on the basis of the model with diffusion and detrapping activation energies of 1.1 and 1.45 eV, respectively, are in good agreement with experimental nitrogen profiles. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 71 (1997), S. 1951-1953 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Al/AlN multilayered thin films with periodic thickness λ less than 24 nm were developed by ion beam assisted deposition. A considerably small surface roughness comparable to that of the silicon substrate and much smaller than those of both monolithic Al and AlN films was obtained. Over the investigated range of λ, all the multilayers are harder than the homogeneous AlN film, and a significant hardness enhancement by a factor of ∼2 over that of the AlN film was observed in the multilayer with λ of 6 nm. Moreover, the hardness enhancement is not at the expense of the multilayer toughness, with the multilayer Al/AlN films showing improved plasticity as compared with the AlN film. © 1997 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 63 (1993), S. 1771-1773 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: We compare reported compositions of a-C:H films in a ternary phase diagram. It is assumed that the films comprised three phases: sp3 hybridized carbon, sp2 hybridized carbon and hydrogen. The data are found to split into two well-separated groups. This separation depends on the method used to measure the sp3/sp2 ratio. We conclude from the comparison of NMR and infrared data that infrared analysis does not provide a quantitative measure of the sp3/sp2 ratio.
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