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  • Wiley-Blackwell  (3)
  • American Institute of Physics (AIP)  (2)
  • American Chemical Society  (1)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: A new instrumental method has been devised for the individual, sequential, or collective measurement of the physical and chemical properties of liquids. The instrumental theory for the fiber drop analyzer (FDA) has been developed for the measurement of surface tension, viscosity, refractive index, and chemical composition of a liquid. An empirical theory is suggested for the measurement of pH in a limited range. The analytical theory for the fiber drop analyzer has been established, a prototype constructed and tested for measuring individually surface tension, viscosity, refractive index, and the chemical composition on a restricted set of test solution. The instrument is shown to have the capability to simultaneously measure the above measurands, but in addition can in individual measurement procedures, measure all these quantities. The instrument perhaps is also potentially capable of measuring specific gravity and pH in its existing form, and other optical properties of liquids with some basic modification. The laboratory FDA has been used to test a series of samples from a large cane sugar manufacturer's process and these measurements demonstrate that this technology has the potential to be used as a remote optrode industrial process monitor for sucrose manufacture and very possibly, elsewhere in other industrial applications.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: An ARCTM or similar experimental apparatus provides the transient temperature history of a chemical system under adiabatic conditions. The information obtained has several applications in the design and operation of industrial systems. Of particular interest is use of the adiabatic kinetic data to define “intervention strategies” based on “allowable response times” during an emergency.The time-temperature behavior of industrial reactors can be simulated over a limited temperature range by matching the “thermal inertia” (or φ-factor) of the experimental system to that of the full-scale system. This approach is applicable even for complex reactions, minimizes the extrapolation of data, and allows the use of simple models for data interpretation. Simulation results directly give the time available to respond in the event of a thermal runaway; this in turn defines the design requirements for an intervention scheme (e.g., emergency cooling, blow down, quench, etc.). The chosen intervention system can be tested experimentally prior to and/or during process start-up.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: In Part I, criteria for heat engine and heat pump placement in chemical process networks were derived, based on the “temperature interval” (T.I) analysis of the heat exchanger network problem. Using these criteria, this paper gives a method for identifying the best outline design for any combined system of chemical process, heat engines, and heat pumps. The method eliminates inferior alternatives early, and positively leads on to the most appropriate solution. A graphical procedure based on the T.I. analysis forms the heart of the approach, and the calculations involved are simple enough to be carried out on, say, a programmable calculator. Application to a case study is demonstrated.Optimization methods based on this procedure are currently under research.
    Additional Material: 27 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The general problem of heat and power integration in process networks is complex and to date not fully understood. The subject covers site combined heat and power, on-plant power generation, heat pumps, and refrigeration systems. This paper is the first of a two-part series and explains the concept of “appropriate” heat engine and heat pump placement in process networks based on a fundamental new insight. “Appropriate” placement takes advantage of integration opportunities with the remainder of the process and yields marginal efficiencies far greater than could be achieved through stand-alone heat engines. Conversely, “inappropriate” placement can never offer an advantage over stand-alone systems. Part II describes procedures for preliminary design, involving heat engine, and heat pump equipment selection and performance assessment.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1520-6882
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 70 (1991), S. 7111-7118 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The liquid jet impact technique has been used extensively for the quantitative study of rain impact. Most of this work has been for normal impact. Although some angled impact studies have been pursued using jets, these have been purely of a qualitative nature. This paper develops the theory of angled drop impact. This allows the establishment of a method of correlating between angled drop and jet impact and obtaining "equivalent drop'' curves for jet impact. The correlation is also applied to normal impact. For normal impact it is shown that the previously published equivalent drop curves need to be modified especially at low velocities. The results for both normal and angled impact are discussed with reference to the details of the jet profile, and it is shown that angled jets may be considered as having an average equivalent drop size. The theory of angled impact also explains the shape of damage marks produced by impact and why the amount of damage decreases so rapidly with increasing angle.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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