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  • 1
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Room temperature photoreflectance (PR) was used to investigate the surface state densities of GaAs and In0.52Al0.48As surface intrinsic-n+ structures. The built-in electric field and thus the surface barrier height are evaluated using the observed Franz–Keldysh oscillations in the PR spectra. Based on the thermionic emission theory and current-transport theory, the surface state density as well as the pinning position of the Fermi level can be determined from the dependence of the surface barrier height on the pump beam intensity. Even though this method is significantly simpler, easier to perform, and time efficient compared with other approaches, the results obtained agree with the literature. © 1999 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 68 (1996), S. 3452-3454 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Photoreflectance measurements have been performed on a δ-doped GaAs homojunction. Two Franz–Keldysh oscillation features originating from two different regions (a buffer layer and a top layer) of the structure superimpose with each other in the photoreflectance spectrum. By properly selecting the reference phase, one of the features can be suppressed, thus enabling us to determine the electric fields from the two regions unambiguously. The electric field in the top layer is 3.5±0.2×105 V/cm, which is in good agreement with theoretical calculation. The electric field in the buffer layer is 1.2±0.1×104 V/cm. © 1996 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Particulate composites with negative stiffness inclusions in a viscoelastic matrix are shown to have higher thermal expansion than that of either constituent and exceeding conventional bounds. It is also shown theoretically that other extreme linear coupled field properties including piezoelectricity and pyroelectricity occur in layer- and fiber-type piezoelectric composites, due to negative inclusion stiffness effects. The causal mechanism is a greater deformation in and near the inclusions than the composite as a whole. A block of negative stiffness material is unstable, but negative stiffness inclusions in a composite can be stabilized by the surrounding matrix and can give rise to extreme viscoelastic effects in lumped and distributed composites. In contrast to prior proposed composites with unbounded thermal expansion, neither the assumptions of void spaces nor slip interfaces are required in the present analysis. © 2001 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 92 (2002), S. 920-926 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: A lattice-matched In0.53Ga0.47As/In0.52Al0.48As single quantum well (SQW) structure grown by gas source molecular beam epitaxy has been investigated by photoreflectance (PR) and photoluminescence (PL). The PR measurements allowed the observation of interband transitions from the heavy- and light-hole valence subbands to the conduction subbands. The transition energies measured from the PR spectra agree with those calculated theoretically. Two features corresponding to the ground state transition coming from the SQW and the band gap transition generated from the buffer layer are observed in the PL spectra and are in good agreement with the PR data. The effect of the temperature on the transition energies is essentially same as that in the gap transition of the bulk structure. The values of the Varshni coefficients of InGaAs/InAlAs were obtained from the relation between the exciton transition energy and the temperature. The built-in electric field could be determined and located from a series of PR spectra by sequential etching processes. The phase spectra obtained from the PR spectra by the Kramers–Kronig transformation were analyzed in terms of the two-ray model, and calculated the etching depth in each etching, and thus leading to the etching rate. The etching rate obtained from phase shift analysis agrees with that measured by atomic force microscopy. The etching results suggest that a built-in electric field exists at the buffer/substrate interface and it also enables us to determine the etching rate. © 2002 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 70 (1997), S. 1296-1298 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Phase images of 20–30-nm-diam silicon spheres were collected by holographic methods in a field-emission transmission electron microscope. The spherical geometry enables the effect of specimen thickness on the electron-wave phase to be separated from the intrinsic Si electron-optical refractive effects allowing a determination of the mean inner potential Φ0. This work finds Φ0=11.9±0.9 V characterizing amorphous Si and 12.1±1.3 V characterizing crystalline Si. The phase images can resolve a 2-nm-thick native oxide layer and give Φ0 for SiO2=10.1±0.6 V. The phase data can quickly recognize a surface layer, and the effect of a surface layer on the determination of the bulk mean potential can be minimized. © 1997 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 67 (1990), S. 6375-6381 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Hall measurements were conducted at temperatures up to 1000 K on unintentionally doped n-type β(3C)- and α(6H)-SiC thin films epitaxially grown on both on-axis and vicinal Si (100) and α(6H)-SiC (0001) by chemical vapor deposition. The carrier concentration versus temperature data were analyzed using a compensation model. The β-SiC films grown on Si were highly compensated (NA/ND=0.73–0.98). The compensation ratio was not as large in the SiC films grown on α-SiC (NA/ND=0.36, for β-SiC on α-SiC, and 0.02, for α-SiC on α-SiC). The donor ionization energy for β-SiC on Si was calculated to be 14–21 meV. Analogous values for β- and α-SiC films on α-SiC were 33 and 84 meV, respectively. These values are smaller than those for N determined from photoluminescence studies.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Built-in electric fields and interfacial state densities (Dit) in a series of oxide–GaAs heterostructures fabricated by in situ molecular beam epitaxy were studied using room temperature photoreflectance. The samples investigated were air-, Al2O3–Ga2Ox–, and Ga2O3(Gd2O3)–GaAs. We found that the built-in electric fields are 48, 44, and 38 kV/cm for air-, Al2O3-, and Ga2Ox–GaAs samples, respectively. For the Ga2O3(Gd2O3)–GaAs sample, the built-in electric field is negligibly small, indicating a very low interfacial state density. Estimated by the low field limit criterion, Dit is less than 1×1011 cm−2 eV−1. Our results on the Ga2O3(Gd2O3)–GaAs sample are consistent with the data obtained previously using capacitance–voltage measurements in quasistatic/high frequency modes and photoluminescence measurements. © 1998 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 72 (1992), S. 4757-4760 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Formation of Schottky barrier contacts to n-type 6H-SiC for a number of metals chosen to include a variety of physical and chemical properties has been investigated. The metals (Pd, Au, Ag, Tb, Er, Mn, Al, and Mg) were deposited onto room temperature surfaces terminated with a submonolayer coverage of oxygen. The metal/6H-SiC interface chemistry and Schottky barrier height φB during contact formation were obtained with x-ray photoemission spectroscopy; the electrical properties of subsequently formed thick contacts were characterized by current-voltage and capacitance-voltage techniques. The øB values for these metals extend over a wide 1.3 eV range. To a varying degree φB depends on the 6H-SiC crystal face (Si vs C). Mg and Al (Si face of latter) have φB=0.3 eV, a value which is suitable for nonalloyed ohmic contacts.
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2014-06-20
    Description: The electronic and magnetic properties of tetravalent-ion-doped La 0.85 Zr 0.15 MnO 3 (LZMO) thin films that were epitaxially grown on SrTiO 3 (STO) and MgO substrates were studied using temperature-dependent x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray absorption near-edge structure, x-ray linear dichroism, and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism at the Mn L 3,2 - and K -edge. XRD studies reveal that the LZMO thin films have compressive and tensile strains (along the c -axis) on the STO and MgO substrates, respectively. As the temperature is reduced from room temperature to below magnetic transition temperature, the preferentially occupied Mn majority-spin e g orbital changes from the in-plane d x 2 -y 2 to the out-of-plane d 3 z 2 -r 2 orbital for LZMO/STO, and vice versa for LZMO/MgO. Experimental results suggest that the new hopping path that is mediated by the Mn 2+ ions triggers a stronger d 3 z 2 -r 2 orbital ordering of Mn 3+ ions and enhances the ferromagnetic coupling between the Mn spin moments of t 2g electrons in LZMO/STO, whereas the strong tensile strain stabilizes the d x 2 -y 2 orbital by inducing lattice distortions of the MnO 6 octahedra in LZMO/MgO.
    Print ISSN: 0021-8979
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-7550
    Topics: Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2014-10-15
    Description: Lower Cretaceous pedogenic carbonates exposed in SE China have been dated by U–Pb isotope measurements on single zircons taken from intercalated volcanic rocks, and the ages integrated with existing stratigraphy. 13 C values of calcretes range from –7.0 to –3.0 and can be grouped into five episodes of increasing–decreasing values. The carbon isotope proxy derived from these palaeosol carbonates suggests p CO 2 mostly in the range 1000–2000 parts per million by volume (ppmV) at S ( z ) (CO 2 contributed by soil respiration) = 2500 ppmV and 25°C during the Hauterivian–Albian interval ( c . 30 Ma duration). Such atmospheric CO 2 levels are 4–8 times pre-industrial values, almost double those estimated by geochemical modelling and much higher than those established from stomatal indices in fossil plants. Rapid rises in p CO 2 are identified for early Hauterivian, middle Barremian, late Aptian, early Albian and middle Albian time, and rapid falls for intervening periods. These episodic cyclic changes in p CO 2 are not attributed to local tectonism and volcanism but rather to global changes. The relationship between reconstructed p CO 2 and the development of large igneous provinces (LIPs) remains unclear, although large-scale extrusion of basalt may well be responsible for relatively high atmospheric levels of this greenhouse gas. Suggested levels of relatively low p CO 2 correspond in timing to intervals of regional to global enrichment of marine carbon in sediments and negative carbon isotope ( 13 C) excursions characteristic of the oceanic anoxic events OAE1a (Selli Event), Kilian and Paquier events (constituting part of the OAE 1b cluster) and OAE1d. Short-term episodes of high p CO 2 coincide with negligible carbon isotope excursions associated with the Faraoni Event and the Jacob Event. Given that episodes of regional organic carbon burial would draw down CO 2 and negative 13 C excursions indicate the addition of isotopically light carbon to the ocean–atmosphere system, controls on the carbon cycle in controlling p CO 2 during Early Cretaceous time were clearly complex and made more so by atmospheric composition also being affected by changes in silicate weathering intensity.
    Print ISSN: 0016-7568
    Electronic ISSN: 1469-5081
    Topics: Geosciences
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