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  • American Institute of Physics (AIP)  (19)
  • American Geophysical Union (AGU)  (2)
  • American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2014-12-23
    Description: The visible spectrum of H 3 + is studied using high-sensitivity action spectroscopy in a cryogenic radiofrequency multipole trap. Advances are made to measure the weak ro-vibrational transitions from the lowest rotational states of H 3 + up to high excitation energies providing visible line intensities and, after normalisation to an infrared calibration line, the corresponding Einstein B coefficients. Ab initio predictions for the Einstein B coefficients are obtained from a highly precise dipole moment surface of H 3 + and found to be in excellent agreement, even in the region where states have been classified as chaotic.
    Print ISSN: 0021-9606
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-7690
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2015-03-27
    Description: In this work, we use an electron-selective titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) heterojunction contact to silicon to block minority carrier holes in the silicon from recombining at the cathode contact of a silicon-based photovoltaic device. We present four pieces of evidence demonstrating the beneficial effect of adding the TiO 2 hole-blocking layer: reduced dark current, increased open circuit voltage (V OC ), increased quantum efficiency at longer wavelengths, and increased stored minority carrier charge under forward bias. The importance of a low rate of recombination of minority carriers at the Si/TiO 2 interface for effective blocking of minority carriers is quantitatively described. The anode is made of a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) heterojunction to silicon which forms a hole selective contact, so that the entire device is made at a maximum temperature of 100 °C, with no doping gradients or junctions in the silicon. A low rate of recombination of minority carriers at the Si/TiO 2 interface is crucial for effective blocking of minority carriers. Such a pair of complementary carrier-selective heterojunctions offers a path towards high-efficiency silicon solar cells using relatively simple and near-room temperature fabrication techniques.
    Print ISSN: 0003-6951
    Electronic ISSN: 1077-3118
    Topics: Physics
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: We present a magnetic sensor based on the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect, which can be used as a contactless potentiometer. The sensor consists of a novel GMR sensor scheme with an artificial antiferromagnetic subsystem. The sensor gives a sinusoidal signal in dependence on the direction of a rotating external magnetic field Hrot. With two sensors in a planar setup, the whole 360° angle range can easily be covered. The amplitude ΔR/R of the signal is about 5%. The signal amplitude runs through a very flat maximum and changes only by 5% within a field range of about 4.4–27.2 kA/m. This large field range, the magnetic window (Hw), is the main advantage of this sensor compared to other magnetic sensor physical principles for contactless potentiometers. Therefore, large mounting tolerances and variations in the field strength of the rotating permanent magnet can be accepted. The temperature dependence of the sensor is linear both for the ground resistance (R0) and the signal amplitude (ΔR), allowing simple and effective electronic temperature compensation. The sensor can be operated up to 150 °C. © 1997 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Second harmonic generation from magnetic materials is shown to lead to a nonlinear magneto-optical Kerr effect that can be orders of magnitude larger than its linear equivalent. The origin of this effect can be found in the differences between the linear and nonlinear solutions of the optical wave equations and in the symmetry properties of the corresponding optical tensors. Applications for the study of magnetic surfaces, thin films, and multilayers will be discussed. © 1996 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: A magnetization model is presented that is used to cover trilayers containing two magnetic layers that are exchange coupled via an intermediate nonmagnetic layer and that have different crystalline anisotropies. The interfaces are coupled to the bulk by a twisted magnetization configuration which is evaluated using the Ritz method. By minimizing the total energy, experimental magnetization curves of strongly coupled Co/Ru sandwiches can be reproduced with a good precision and with the same set of parameters in two perpendicular field directions. These physical parameters can be determined with a good reliability and are in agreement with the literature except for the bulk anisotropy of the Co layer first deposited, which is twice as large as the known bulk value. This originates in the magnetoelastic contributions due to lattice misfit and interface roughness. It is shown that the interlayer exchange coupling forces the magnetization of both layers to be along the same axis in the low-field range notwithstanding the opposite sign of the anisotropy constants in most stacks. It is also demonstrated that the differences in the orientations of the moments in one Co layer are modest and depend on the various parameters. In particular, the bulk exchange constant is a decisive parameter that makes the calculated curves close to the experimental ones. © 1996 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 63 (1988), S. 4330-4332 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: A method for constructing three-dimensional solenoidal magnetization distributions, with invariant magnitude of m, in arbitrarily shaped objects is presented. The formalism harks back to the theory developed by van den Berg for two-dimensional m distributions. The space within a general object Ω is partitioned into i subspaces Ωi, described by a family of surfaces to which the magnetization is tangent. A characteristic equation which defines the course of m at each of the surfaces is derived. A boundary condition for m arises naturally, or can be chosen to determine m at the surface. Within the above framework an infinite number of solutions are generated that, in general, exhibit singularities. Special attention, also from the topological point of view, is paid to the m distributions having point defects only.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    College Park, Md. : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    The Journal of Chemical Physics 105 (1996), S. 10535-10555 
    ISSN: 1089-7690
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: We have measured the thermal conductivity of methane at temperatures from 308 K down to 190.585 K, which is just 21 mK above the critical temperature, and at densities up to 14 mol L−1. The data were obtained with an improved guarded parallel-plate cell with a new cryostat that was built especially for measurements in the critical region of methane. The new experimental data have a higher accuracy than those reported previously in the literature and enable us to examine the validity of the currently available theoretical description of the asymptotic and nonasymptotic behavior of the thermal conductivity of fluids in the critical region. Equations for the thermal conductivity of methane in a wide range of temperatures and densities are also presented. © 1996 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    College Park, Md. : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    The Journal of Chemical Physics 101 (1994), S. 6944-6963 
    ISSN: 1089-7690
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: We have measured the thermal conductivity of argon at temperatures from 302 K down to 150.8 K and at densities up to 25 mol L−1. The data were obtained with a steady-state method and we employed a guarded parallel-plate apparatus designed especially for investigating the thermal conductivity of fluids in the critical region. To interpret the data in the critical region a scaled crossover equation of state for argon in the critical region has been constructed. Equations for the thermal conductivity and viscosity of argon as a function of density and temperature are presented.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 68 (1996), S. 3635-3637 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: We have studied the magnetic domain structure of a thin polycrystalline Co film by magnetic force microscopy (MFM). Domain walls of the cross-tie type have been observed for a Co film of 50 nm thickness. Due to the high lateral resolution of MFM we have been able to study the magnetic structure of a single cross tie. We have determined locations of Bloch lines within a domain wall comparing the experimental data with a theoretical model of a cross-tie wall. In order to explain our experimental results we have proposed a model for the interaction between a MFM tip and a cross-tie wall. © 1996 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 60 (1986), S. 1104-1113 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: A construction method for determining the domain structure in ideally soft-ferromagnetic cylindrical objects with plane-parallel top and bottom surfaces of arbitrary shape is presented. The self-consistent theory is confined to two-dimensional solenoidal dipole distributions in which the dipoles are parallel to the top and bottom surfaces. It is proved that the basic domain structure is uniquely defined in simply connected objects, while an extra criterion has to be added in order to guarantee the uniqueness in the multiply connected ones. The treatment is based on differential geometrical principles. The object edge is partitioned into segments, in which each segment is situated in between two adjacent edge points where the radii of curvature of convex edge segments are locally minimal. To each edge segment, a region is attributed, in which M is uniquely specified by the course of M along that edge segment. In the cross section of regions corresponding to different edge segments, domain walls provide an adequate separation of the dipole distribution imposed by these segments. The extremities of these domain walls are found in the singular points of the evolute corresponding to the extremities of the edge segments and in the points where a number of walls meet. It is proved that the basic domain structure is the locus of centers of all circles inside the object that touch the object edge at at least two points. A number of experimentally observed basic structures are given, and the relevance of the definition of basic structures in multiply connected objects is examined. OFF
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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