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  • American Geophysical Union  (2)
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-03-02
    Description: Benthic (Uvigerina spp., Cibicidoides spp., Gyroidinoides spp.) and planktonic (N. pachyderma sinistral, G. bulloides) stable isotope records from three core sites in the central Gulf of Alaska are used to infer mixed-layer and deepwater properties of the late glacial Subarctic Pacific. Glacial-interglacial amplitudes of the planktonic δ18O records are 1.1–1.3‰, less than half the amplitude observed at core sites at similar latitudes in the North Atlantic; these data imply that a strong, negative δw anomaly existed in the glacial Subarctic mixed layer during the summer, which points to a much stronger low-salinity anomaly than exists today. If true, the upper water column in the North Pacific would have been statically more stable than today, thus suppressing convection even more efficiently. This scenario is further supported by vertical (i.e., planktic versus benthic) δ18O and δ13C gradients of 〉1‰, which suggest that a thermohaline link between Pacific deep waters and the Subarctic Pacific mixed layer did not exist during the late glacial. Epibenthic δ13C in the Subarctic Pacific is more negative than at tropical-subtropical Pacific sites but similar to that recorded at Southern Ocean sites, suggesting ventilation of the deep central Pacific from mid-latitude sources, e.g., from the Sea of Japan and Sea of Okhotsk. Still, convection to intermediate depths could have occurred in the Subarctic during the winter months when heat loss to the atmosphere, sea ice formation, and wind-driven upwelling of saline deep waters would have been most intense. This would be beyond the grasp of our planktonic records which only document mixed-layer temperature-salinity fields extant during the warmer seasons. Also we do not have benthic isotope records from true intermediate water depths of the Subarctic Pacific.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2004. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Paleoceanography 19 (2004): PA4007, doi:10.1029/2003PA001000.
    Description: An analysis of sedimentary nitrogen isotope records compiled from widely distributed marine environments emphasizes the global synchrony of denitrification changes and provides evidence for a strong temporal coupling of these variations to changes in nitrogen fixation as previously inferred. We explain the global coherence of these records by a simple physical control on the flux of dissolved oxygen to suboxic zones and the coupling to fixation via the supply of phosphorus to diazotrophs in suitable environments. According to our hypothesis, lower glacial-stage sea surface temperature increased oxygen solubility, while stronger winds in high-latitude regions enhanced the rate of thermocline ventilation. The resultant colder, rapidly flushed thermocline lessened the spatial extent of denitrification and, consequently, N fixation. During warm periods, sluggish circulation of warmer, less oxygen rich thermocline waters caused expansion of denitrification zones and a concomitant increase in N fixation. Local fluctuations in export productivity would have modulated this global signal.
    Description: Financial support for this work was provided by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada and by a WHOI postdoctoral fellowship to MK.
    Keywords: Isotopes ; Fixation ; Denitrification
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Format: application/pdf
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