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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-09-06
    Description: From historical and archeological records, it is posited that the European medieval household was a combination of close relatives and recruits. However, this kinship structure has not yet been directly tested at a genomic level on medieval burials. The early 7th century CE burial at Niederstotzingen, discovered in 1962, is the most complete and richest example of Alemannic funerary practice in Germany. Excavations found 13 individuals who were buried with an array of inscribed bridle gear, jewelry, armor, and swords. These artifacts support the view that the individuals had contact with France, northern Italy, and Byzantium. This study analyzed genome-wide sequences recovered from the remains, in tandem with analysis of the archeological context, to reconstruct kinship and the extent of outside contact. Eleven individuals had sufficient DNA preservation to genetically sex them as male and identify nine unique mitochondrial haplotypes and two distinct Y chromosome lineages. Genome-wide analyses were performed on eight individuals to estimate genetic affiliation to modern west Eurasians and genetic kinship at the burial. Five individuals were direct relatives. Three other individuals were not detectably related; two of these showed genomic affinity to southern Europeans. The genetic makeup of the individuals shares no observable pattern with their orientation in the burial or the cultural association of their grave goods, with the five related individuals buried with grave goods associated with three diverse cultural origins. These findings support the idea that not only were kinship and fellowship held in equal regard: Diverse cultural appropriation was practiced among closely related individuals as well.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-03-26
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bolon, Brad -- Altrock, Bruce -- Barthold, Stephen W -- Baumgarth, Nicole -- Besselsen, David -- Boivin, Gregory -- Boyd, Kelli L -- Brayton, Cory -- Cardiff, Robert D -- Couto, Suzana -- Eaton, Kathryn A -- Foreman, Oded -- Griffey, Stephen M -- La Perle, Krista -- Lairmore, Michael D -- Liu, Chen -- Meyerholz, David K -- Nikitin, Alexander Yu -- Schoeb, Trenton R -- Schwahn, Denise -- Sellers, Rani S -- Sundberg, John P -- Tolwani, Ravi -- Valli, Victor E -- Zink, M Christine -- U01 CA141582/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Mar 25;331(6024):1516-7. doi: 10.1126/science.331.6024.1516-b.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21436422" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: National Institutes of Health (U.S.)/*organization & administration ; Translational Medical Research/*organization & administration ; United States
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-01-09
    Description: The stomach bacterium Helicobacter pylori is one of the most prevalent human pathogens. It has dispersed globally with its human host, resulting in a distinct phylogeographic pattern that can be used to reconstruct both recent and ancient human migrations. The extant European population of H. pylori is known to be a hybrid between Asian and African bacteria, but there exist different hypotheses about when and where the hybridization took place, reflecting the complex demographic history of Europeans. Here, we present a 5300-year-old H. pylori genome from a European Copper Age glacier mummy. The "Iceman" H. pylori is a nearly pure representative of the bacterial population of Asian origin that existed in Europe before hybridization, suggesting that the African population arrived in Europe within the past few thousand years.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4775254/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4775254/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Maixner, Frank -- Krause-Kyora, Ben -- Turaev, Dmitrij -- Herbig, Alexander -- Hoopmann, Michael R -- Hallows, Janice L -- Kusebauch, Ulrike -- Vigl, Eduard Egarter -- Malfertheiner, Peter -- Megraud, Francis -- O'Sullivan, Niall -- Cipollini, Giovanna -- Coia, Valentina -- Samadelli, Marco -- Engstrand, Lars -- Linz, Bodo -- Moritz, Robert L -- Grimm, Rudolf -- Krause, Johannes -- Nebel, Almut -- Moodley, Yoshan -- Rattei, Thomas -- Zink, Albert -- 2P50 GM076547/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P50 GM076547/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM087221/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- S10 RR027584/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 8;351(6269):162-5. doi: 10.1126/science.aad2545.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institute for Mummies and the Iceman, European Academy of Bozen/Bolzano (EURAC), Viale Druso 1, 39100 Bolzano, Italy. frank.maixner@eurac.edu albert.zink@eurac.edu. ; Institute of Clinical Molecular Biology, Kiel University, Schittenhelmstrasse 12, 24105 Kiel, Germany. ; CUBE-Division of Computational Systems Biology, Department of Microbiology and Ecosystem Science, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, 1090 Vienna, Austria. ; Institute for Archaeological Sciences, University of Tubingen, Rumelinstrasse 23, 72072 Tubingen, Germany. Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Kahlaische Strasse 10, 07745 Jena, Germany. ; Institute for Systems Biology, 401 Terry Avenue North, Seattle, WA 98109, USA. ; Scuola Superiore Sanitaria Provinciale "Claudiana," Via Lorenz Bohler 13, 39100 Bolzano, Italy. ; Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Infectious Diseases, Otto-von-Guericke University, Leipziger Strasse 44, 39120 Magdeburg, Germany. ; Universite de Bordeaux, Centre National de Reference des Helicobacters et Campylobacters and INSERM U853, 146 rue Leo Saignat, 33076 Bordeaux, France. ; Institute for Mummies and the Iceman, European Academy of Bozen/Bolzano (EURAC), Viale Druso 1, 39100 Bolzano, Italy. ; Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, 141 83 Stockholm, Sweden. ; Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA. ; Robert Mondavi Institute for Food Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA. ; Department of Zoology, University of Venda, Private Bag X5050, Thohoyandou 0950, Republic of South Africa. Department of Integrative Biology and Evolution, Konrad Lorenz Institute for Ethology, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Savoyenstrasse 1a, 1160 Vienna, Austria.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26744403" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Asia ; Chromosome Mapping ; DNA, Bacterial/genetics/isolation & purification ; Europe ; Genome, Bacterial/*genetics ; Helicobacter Infections/*microbiology ; Helicobacter pylori/*genetics/isolation & purification ; Human Migration ; Humans ; *Hybridization, Genetic ; Ice Cover/microbiology ; Mummies/microbiology ; Phylogeny ; Phylogeography ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Stomach/*microbiology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2004-03-20
    Description: Rotary motion around a molecular axis has been controlled by simple electron transfer processes and by photoexcitation. The basis of the motion is intramolecular rotation of a carborane cage ligand (7,8-dicarbollide) around a nickel axle. The Ni(III) metallacarborane structure is a transoid sandwich with two pairs of carbon vertices reflected through a center of symmetry, but that of the Ni(IV) species is cisoid. The interconversion of the two provides the basis for controlled, rotational, oscillatory motion. The energies of the Ni(III) and Ni(IV) species are calculated as a function of the rotation angle.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hawthorne, M Frederick -- Zink, Jeffrey I -- Skelton, Johnny M -- Bayer, Michael J -- Liu, Chris -- Livshits, Ester -- Baer, Roi -- Neuhauser, Daniel -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2004 Mar 19;303(5665):1849-51.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, 90095-1569, USA. mfh@chem.ucla.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15031500" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2000-01-11
    Description: A comprehensive investigation of polar stratospheric clouds was performed on 25 January 2000 with instruments onboard a balloon gondola flown from Kiruna, Sweden. Cloud layers were repeatedly encountered at altitudes between 20 and 24 kilometers over a wide range of atmospheric temperatures (185 to 197 kelvin). Particle composition analysis showed that a large fraction of the cloud layers was composed of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) particles, containing water and nitric acid at a molar ratio of 3:1; this confirmed that these long-sought solid crystals exist well above ice formation temperatures. The presence of NAT particles enhances the potential for chlorine activation with subsequent ozone destruction in polar regions, particularly in early and late winter.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Voigt, C -- Schreiner, J -- Kohlmann, A -- Zink, P -- Mauersberger, K -- Larsen, N -- Deshler, T -- Kroger, C -- Rosen, J -- Adriani, A -- Cairo, F -- Di Donfrancesco, G -- Viterbini, M -- Ovarlez, J -- Ovarlez, H -- David, C -- Dornbrack, A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2000 Dec 1;290(5497):1756-8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Max-Planck-Institut fur Kernphysik, Division of Atmospheric Physics, Post Office Box 103 980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11099412" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2006-05-06
    Description: Given the choice of waiting for an adverse outcome or getting it over with quickly, many people choose the latter. Theoretical models of decision-making have assumed that this occurs because there is a cost to waiting-i.e., dread. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we measured the neural responses to waiting for a cutaneous electric shock. Some individuals dreaded the outcome so much that, when given a choice, they preferred to receive more voltage rather than wait. Even when no decision was required, these extreme dreaders were distinguishable from those who dreaded mildly by the rate of increase of neural activity in the posterior elements of the cortical pain matrix. This suggests that dread derives, in part, from the attention devoted to the expected physical response and not simply from fear or anxiety. Although these differences were observed during a passive waiting procedure, they correlated with individual behavior in a subsequent choice paradigm, providing evidence for a neurobiological link between the experienced disutility of dread and subsequent decisions about unpleasant outcomes.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1820741/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1820741/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Berns, Gregory S -- Chappelow, Jonathan -- Cekic, Milos -- Zink, Caroline F -- Pagnoni, Giuseppe -- Martin-Skurski, Megan E -- DA00367/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- DA016434/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- K08 DA000367/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 DA016434/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2006 May 5;312(5774):754-8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, 101 Woodruff Circle, Suite 4000, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA. gberns@emory.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16675703" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; *Anxiety ; Brain Mapping ; Cerebral Cortex/*physiology ; Cues ; *Decision Making ; Electroshock ; *Emotions ; *Fear ; Female ; Humans ; Magnetic Resonance Imaging ; Male ; Models, Psychological ; Pain/physiopathology ; Time Factors
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2017-09-21
    Description: Migratory behavior in birds is evolutionarily plastic, but it is unclear how this behavior responded during glacial cycles. One view is that at glacial maxima, species simply shifted their breeding ranges south of glacial ice and remained migratory. To test this hypothesis, we constructed ecological niche models for breeding and wintering ranges of 56 species, finding that 70% of currently long-distance North American migrant species likely lacked suitable breeding habitat in North America at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), and we hypothesized that they reverted to the ancestral state of being tropical sedentary residents. A smaller percentage of short-distance migrants (27%) experienced altered migratory behavior at the LGM, although the ranges of all species were shifted southward, as traditionally envisioned. We suggest that many species oscillate between sedentary and migratory strategies with each glacial cycle acting as an adaptive switch. Thus, range shifts occur more frequently than speciation events and are inadequately depicted by phylogenetic reconstructions. We suggest that reconstructing the evolutionary history of traits, such as migratory behavior, is best served by using ranges at glacial maxima. A phylogeny of warblers strongly predicted LGM, but not present distributions, and suggested that migration was re-expressed from three tropical centers of warbler diversity. Understanding of evolutionary history will be improved when reconstructions use distributions relevant to the time of character transitions.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 1990-11-30
    Description: Borna disease virus (BDV) causes a rare neurological disease in horses and sheep. The virus has not been classified because neither an infectious particle nor a specific nucleic acid had been identified. To identify the genome of BDV, a subtractive complementary DNA expression library was constructed with polyadenylate-selected RNA from a BDV-infected MDCK cell line. A clone (B8) was isolated that specifically hybridized to RNA isolated from BDV-infected brain tissue and BDV-infected cell lines. This clone hybridized to four BDV-specific positive strand RNAs (10.5, 3.6, 2.1, and 0.85 kilobases) and one negative strand RNA (10.5 kilobases) in BDV-infected rat brain. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the clone suggested that it represented a full-length messenger RNA which contained several open reading frames. In vitro transcription and translation of the clone resulted in the synthesis of the 14- and 24-kilodalton BDV-specific proteins. The 24-kilodalton protein, when translated in vitro from the clone, was recognized by antibodies in the sera of patients (three of seven) with behavioral disorders. This BDV-specific clone will provide the means to isolate the other BDV-specific nucleic acids and to identify the virus responsible for Borna disease. In addition, the significance of BDV or a BDV-related virus as a human pathogen can now be more directly examined.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉VandeWoude, S -- Richt, J A -- Zink, M C -- Rott, R -- Narayan, O -- Clements, J E -- RR00130/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- RR07002/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1990 Nov 30;250(4985):1278-81.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Colorado State University, Lab Animal Resources, Fort Collins 80532.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2244211" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Antibodies, Viral/*blood ; Borna Disease/*microbiology ; Borna disease virus/*genetics/immunology ; Brain/microbiology ; Cloning, Molecular ; DNA/*genetics ; Fluorescent Antibody Technique ; Humans ; Immunoblotting ; Mental Disorders/*microbiology ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Molecular Weight ; Nucleic Acid Hybridization ; RNA, Messenger/analysis/genetics ; RNA, Viral/analysis/genetics ; Rats ; Transcription, Genetic ; Viral Proteins/*genetics/immunology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 1992-02-28
    Description: Novel sol-gel synthetic techniques were used to immobilize copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), cytochrome c, and myoglobin (Mb) by encapsulation in stable, optically transparent, porous silica glass matrices under mild conditions such that the biomolecules retained their characteristic reactivities and spectroscopic properties. The resulting glasses allowed transport of small molecules into and out of the glasses at reasonable rates but nevertheless retained the protein molecules within their pores. Chemical reactions of the immobilized proteins could be monitored by means of changes in their visible absorption spectra. Silica glasses containing the immobilized proteins were observed to have similar reactivities and spectroscopic properties to those found for the proteins in solution. For example, encapsulated CuZnSOD was demetallated and remetallated, encapsulated ferricytochrome c was reduced and then reoxidized, and encapsulated met Mb was reduced to deoxy Mb and then reacted either with dioxygen to make oxy Mb or with carbon monoxide to make carbonyl Mb.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ellerby, L M -- Nishida, C R -- Nishida, F -- Yamanaka, S A -- Dunn, B -- Valentine, J S -- Zink, J I -- GM28222/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM08375/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1992 Feb 28;255(5048):1113-5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Los Angeles 90024.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1312257" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cattle ; Cytochrome c Group/chemistry ; Gels ; *Glass ; Horses ; Myoglobin/chemistry ; Proteins/*chemistry ; Solutions ; Spectrum Analysis ; Superoxide Dismutase/chemistry
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 1992-12-11
    Description: Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is frequently accompanied by the AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) dementia complex. The role of specific HIV genetic elements in the pathogenesis of central nervous system (CNS) disease is not clear. Transgenic mice were constructed that contained the long terminal repeats (LTRs) of two CNS-derived strains and a T cell tropic strain of HIV-1. Only mice generated with CNS-derived LTRs directed expression in the CNS, particularly in neurons. Thus, some strains of HIV-1 have a selective advantage for gene expression in the brain, and neurons can supply the cellular factors necessary for their transcription.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Corboy, J R -- Buzy, J M -- Zink, M C -- Clements, J E -- AI27297/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI28748/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- NS07000/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- etc. -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1992 Dec 11;258(5089):1804-8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Comparative Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1465618" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Brain/*physiology ; Central Nervous System/*physiology ; Female ; Gene Expression ; *HIV Long Terminal Repeat ; HIV-1/*genetics ; Intestine, Small/physiology ; Lung/physiology ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mice, Inbred DBA ; Mice, Transgenic ; Ocular Physiological Phenomena ; Organ Specificity ; RNA, Messenger/analysis/*metabolism ; Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism ; Spinal Cord/physiology ; Thymus Gland/physiology ; beta-Galactosidase/genetics/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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