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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈p〉The recent discovery of ferromagnetism in two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals (vdW) materials holds promises for spintronic devices with exceptional properties. However, to use 2D vdW magnets for building spintronic nanodevices such as magnetic memories, key challenges remain in terms of effectively switching the magnetization from one state to the other electrically. Here, we devise a bilayer structure of Fe〈sub〉3〈/sub〉GeTe〈sub〉2〈/sub〉/Pt, in which the magnetization of few-layered Fe〈sub〉3〈/sub〉GeTe〈sub〉2〈/sub〉 can be effectively switched by the spin-orbit torques (SOTs) originated from the current flowing in the Pt layer. The effective magnetic fields corresponding to the SOTs are further quantitatively characterized using harmonic measurements. Our demonstration of the SOT-driven magnetization switching in a 2D vdW magnet could pave the way for implementing low-dimensional materials in the next-generation spintronic applications.〈/p〉
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-07-07
    Description: Ferroelectric materials for photovoltaics have sparked great interest because of their switchable photoelectric responses and above-bandgap photovoltages that violate conventional photovoltaic theory. However, their relatively low photocurrent and power conversion efficiency limit their potential application in solar cells. To improve performance, conventional strategies focus mainly on narrowing the bandgap to better match the solar spectrum, leaving the fundamental connection between polar order and photovoltaic effect largely overlooked. We report large photovoltaic enhancement by A -site substitutions in a model ferroelectric photovoltaic material, BiFeO 3 . As revealed by optical measurements and supported by theoretical calculations, the enhancement is accompanied by the chemically driven rotational instability of the polarization, which, in turn, affects the charge transfer at the band edges and drives a direct-to-indirect bandgap transition, highlighting the strong coupling between polarization, lattice, and orbital order parameters in ferroelectrics. Polar order engineering thus provides an additional degree of freedom to further boost photovoltaic efficiency in ferroelectrics and related materials.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈p〉Atomic engineering is envisioned to involve selectively inducing the desired dynamics of single atoms and combining these steps for larger-scale assemblies. Here, we focus on the first part by surveying the single-step dynamics of graphene dopants, primarily phosphorus, caused by electron irradiation both in experiment and simulation, and develop a theory for describing the probabilities of competing configurational outcomes depending on the postcollision momentum vector of the primary knock-on atom. The predicted branching ratio of configurational transformations agrees well with our atomically resolved experiments. This suggests a way for biasing the dynamics toward desired outcomes, paving the road for designing and further upscaling atomic engineering using electron irradiation.〈/p〉
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈p〉First-order relationships between organic matter content and mineral surface area have been widely reported and are implicated in stabilization and long-term preservation of organic matter. However, the nature and stability of organo-mineral interactions and their connection with mineralogical composition, have remained uncertain. Here, we find that continentally derived organic matter of pedogenic origin is stripped from smectite mineral surfaces upon discharge, dispersal, and sedimentation in distal ocean settings. In contrast, organic matter sourced from ancient rocks that is tightly associated with mica and chlorite endures in the marine realm. These results imply that the persistence of continentally derived organic matter in ocean sediments is controlled to a first order by phyllosilicate mineralogy.〈/p〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 5
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2018-05-25
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-06-08
    Description: Plants regulate photosynthetic light harvesting to maintain balanced energy flux into photosystems I and II (PSI and PSII). Under light conditions favoring PSII excitation, the PSII antenna, light-harvesting complex II (LHCII), is phosphorylated and forms a supercomplex with PSI core and the PSI antenna, light-harvesting complex I (LHCI). Both LHCI and LHCII then transfer excitation energy to the PSI core. We report the structure of maize PSI-LHCI-LHCII solved by cryo–electron microscopy, revealing the recognition site between LHCII and PSI. The PSI subunits PsaN and PsaO are observed at the PSI-LHCI interface and the PSI-LHCII interface, respectively. Each subunit relays excitation to PSI core through a pair of chlorophyll molecules, thus revealing previously unseen paths for energy transfer between the antennas and the PSI core.
    Keywords: Biochemistry, Botany
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2018-12-07
    Description: Developing alternative paradigms of electronics beyond silicon technology requires the exploration of fundamentally new physical mechanisms, such as the valley-specific phenomena in hexagonal two-dimensional materials. We realize ballistic valley Hall kink states in bilayer graphene and demonstrate gate-controlled current transmission in a four-kink router device. The operations of a waveguide, a valve, and a tunable electron beam splitter are demonstrated. The valley valve exploits the valley-momentum locking of the kink states and reaches an on/off ratio of 8 at zero magnetic field. A magnetic field enables a full-range tunable coherent beam splitter. These results pave a path to building a scalable, coherent quantum transportation network based on the kink states.
    Keywords: Physics
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-12-14
    Description: Theory has established the importance of geometric phase (GP) effects in the adiabatic dynamics of molecular systems with a conical intersection connecting the ground- and excited-state potential energy surfaces, but direct observation of their manifestation in chemical reactions remains a major challenge. Here, we report a high-resolution crossed molecular beams study of the H + HD -〉 H 2 + D reaction at a collision energy slightly above the conical intersection. Velocity map ion imaging revealed fast angular oscillations in product quantum state–resolved differential cross sections in the forward scattering direction for H 2 products at specific rovibrational levels. The experimental results agree with adiabatic quantum dynamical calculations only when the GP effect is included.
    Keywords: Chemistry
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2012-08-28
    Description: Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2)-mediated histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27) methylation is vital for Polycomb gene silencing, a classic epigenetic phenomenon that maintains transcriptional silencing throughout cell divisions. We report that PRC2 activity is regulated by the density of its substrate nucleosome arrays. Neighboring nucleosomes activate the PRC2 complex with a fragment of their H3 histones (Ala(31) to Arg(42)). We also identified mutations on PRC2 subunit Su(z)12, which impair its binding and response to the activating peptide and its ability in establishing H3K27 trimethylation levels in vivo. In mouse embryonic stem cells, local chromatin compaction occurs before the formation of trimethylated H3K27 upon transcription cessation of the retinoic acid-regulated gene CYP26a1. We propose that PRC2 can sense the chromatin environment to exert its role in the maintenance of transcriptional states.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Yuan, Wen -- Wu, Tong -- Fu, Hang -- Dai, Chao -- Wu, Hui -- Liu, Nan -- Li, Xiang -- Xu, Mo -- Zhang, Zhuqiang -- Niu, Tianhui -- Han, Zhifu -- Chai, Jijie -- Zhou, Xianghong Jasmine -- Gao, Shaorong -- Zhu, Bing -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 Aug 24;337(6097):971-5. doi: 10.1126/science.1225237.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22923582" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes ; Chromatin Immunoprecipitation ; Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/genetics ; Drosophila Proteins/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Drosophila melanogaster ; Embryonic Stem Cells ; Gene Silencing ; Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Histones/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Humans ; Lysine/metabolism ; Methylation ; Mice ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mutagenesis ; Nucleosomes/*metabolism/ultrastructure ; Peptide Fragments/metabolism ; Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 ; Polycomb-Group Proteins ; Repressor Proteins/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; *Transcription, Genetic
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-10-05
    Description: Botrytis cinerea, the causative agent of gray mold disease, is an aggressive fungal pathogen that infects more than 200 plant species. Here, we show that some B. cinerea small RNAs (Bc-sRNAs) can silence Arabidopsis and tomato genes involved in immunity. These Bc-sRNAs hijack the host RNA interference (RNAi) machinery by binding to Arabidopsis Argonaute 1 (AGO1) and selectively silencing host immunity genes. The Arabidopsis ago1 mutant exhibits reduced susceptibility to B. cinerea, and the B. cinerea dcl1 dcl2 double mutant that can no longer produce these Bc-sRNAs displays reduced pathogenicity on Arabidopsis and tomato. Thus, this fungal pathogen transfers "virulent" sRNA effectors into host plant cells to suppress host immunity and achieve infection, which demonstrates a naturally occurring cross-kingdom RNAi as an advanced virulence mechanism.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4096153/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4096153/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Weiberg, Arne -- Wang, Ming -- Lin, Feng-Mao -- Zhao, Hongwei -- Zhang, Zhihong -- Kaloshian, Isgouhi -- Huang, Hsien-Da -- Jin, Hailing -- R01 GM093008/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Oct 4;342(6154):118-23. doi: 10.1126/science.1239705.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24092744" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Arabidopsis/genetics/*immunology/microbiology ; Arabidopsis Proteins/genetics ; Argonaute Proteins/genetics ; Botrytis/genetics/*pathogenicity ; Gene Expression Regulation, Plant ; Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics/*immunology ; Lycopersicon esculentum/genetics/immunology/microbiology ; Mutation ; Plant Diseases/genetics/immunology/*microbiology ; *RNA Interference ; RNA, Fungal/*genetics ; RNA, Small Interfering/*genetics ; Virulence/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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