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  • American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)  (12)
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-12-13
    Description: A major fraction of atmospheric aerosol particles, which affect both air quality and climate, form from gaseous precursors in the atmosphere. Highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs), formed by oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds, are known to participate in particle formation and growth. However, it is not well understood how they interact with atmospheric pollutants, such as nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and sulfur oxides (SO x ) from fossil fuel combustion, as well as ammonia (NH 3 ) from livestock and fertilizers. Here, we show how NO x suppresses particle formation, while HOMs, sulfuric acid, and NH 3 have a synergistic enhancing effect on particle formation. We postulate a novel mechanism, involving HOMs, sulfuric acid, and ammonia, which is able to closely reproduce observations of particle formation and growth in daytime boreal forest and similar environments. The findings elucidate the complex interactions between biogenic and anthropogenic vapors in the atmospheric aerosol system.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-08-10
    Description: The role of electron-electron interactions in two-dimensional Dirac fermion systems remains enigmatic. Using a combination of nonperturbative numerical and analytical techniques that incorporate both the contact and long-range parts of the Coulomb interaction, we identify the two previously discussed regimes: a Gross-Neveu transition to a strongly correlated Mott insulator and a semimetallic state with a logarithmically diverging Fermi velocity accurately described by the random phase approximation. We predict that experimental realizations of Dirac fermions span this crossover and that this determines whether the Fermi velocity is increased or decreased by interactions. We explain several long-standing mysteries, including why the observed Fermi velocity in graphene is consistently about 20% larger than values obtained from ab initio calculations and why graphene on different substrates shows different behaviors.
    Keywords: Physics
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-05-25
    Description: Transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) materials are promising for spintronic and valleytronic applications because valley-polarized excitations can be generated and manipulated with circularly polarized photons and the valley and spin degrees of freedom are locked by strong spin-orbital interactions. In this study we demonstrate efficient generation of a pure and locked spin-valley diffusion current in tungsten disulfide (WS 2 )–tungsten diselenide (WSe 2 ) heterostructures without any driving electric field. We imaged the propagation of valley current in real time and space by pump-probe spectroscopy. The valley current in the heterostructures can live for more than 20 microseconds and propagate over 20 micrometers; both the lifetime and the diffusion length can be controlled through electrostatic gating. The high-efficiency and electric-field–free generation of a locked spin-valley current in TMDC heterostructures holds promise for applications in spin and valley devices.
    Keywords: Materials Science, Physics
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2017-06-08
    Description: Rising global temperatures are causing increases in the frequency and severity of extreme climatic events, such as floods, droughts, and heat waves. We analyze changes in summer temperatures, the frequency, severity, and duration of heat waves, and heat-related mortality in India between 1960 and 2009 using data from the India Meteorological Department. Mean temperatures across India have risen by more than 0.5°C over this period, with statistically significant increases in heat waves. Using a novel probabilistic model, we further show that the increase in summer mean temperatures in India over this period corresponds to a 146% increase in the probability of heat-related mortality events of more than 100 people. In turn, our results suggest that future climate warming will lead to substantial increases in heat-related mortality, particularly in developing low-latitude countries, such as India, where heat waves will become more frequent and populations are especially vulnerable to these extreme temperatures. Our findings indicate that even moderate increases in mean temperatures may cause great increases in heat-related mortality and support the efforts of governments and international organizations to build up the resilience of these vulnerable regions to more severe heat waves.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 1983-11-04
    Description: Sequences coding for the bean seed protein phaseolin were inserted into transferred DNA regions of tumor-inducing plasmids. Constructions were devised in which the coding region of phaseolin was fused in the correct reading frame with the coding region of octopine synthase and placed under the transcriptional control of the octopine synthase promoter. Other plasmids were prepared to permit expression of the phaseolin-encoding sequences from the flanking phaseolin promoter region. The RNA transcribed in sunflower cells transformed with these constructions was characterized by hybridization procedures, SI nuclease mapping, and by translation in vitro of extracted RNA. These tests showed that the genomic intervening sequences were correctly excised. Immunoreactive phaseolin polypeptides were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and by antibody hybridization to electrophoretically separated protein extracts of sunflower tissues isolated from crown gall tumors and of transformed sunflower cells grown in tissue culture. These results demonstrate the expression of a plant gene after transfer to a taxonomically distinct botanical family.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Murai, N -- Kemp, J D -- Sutton, D W -- Murray, M G -- Slightom, J L -- Merlo, D J -- Reichert, N A -- Sengupta-Gopalan, C -- Stock, C A -- Barker, R F -- Hall, T C -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1983 Nov 4;222(4623):476-82.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17746179" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2009-10-03
    Description: Intraspecific chemical communication is mediated by signals called pheromones. Caenorhabditis elegans secretes a mixture of small molecules (collectively termed dauer pheromone) that regulates entry into the alternate dauer larval stage and also modulates adult behavior via as yet unknown receptors. Here, we identify two heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that mediate dauer formation in response to a subset of dauer pheromone components. The SRBC-64 and SRBC-66 GPCRs are members of the large Caenorhabditis-specific SRBC subfamily and are expressed in the ASK chemosensory neurons, which are required for pheromone-induced dauer formation. Expression of both, but not each receptor alone, confers pheromone-mediated effects on heterologous cells. Identification of dauer pheromone receptors will allow a better understanding of the signaling cascades that transduce the context-dependent effects of ecologically important chemical signals.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4448937/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4448937/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kim, Kyuhyung -- Sato, Koji -- Shibuya, Mayumi -- Zeiger, Danna M -- Butcher, Rebecca A -- Ragains, Justin R -- Clardy, Jon -- Touhara, Kazushige -- Sengupta, Piali -- F32 GM077943/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P30 NS045713/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- P30 NS45713/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA024487/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA24487/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM056223/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM56223/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Nov 13;326(5955):994-8. doi: 10.1126/science.1176331. Epub 2009 Oct 1.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biology and National Center for Behavioral Genomics, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02454, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19797623" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Caenorhabditis elegans/genetics/*growth & development/*physiology ; Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins/genetics/physiology ; Calcium/metabolism ; Cell Line ; Chemoreceptor Cells/metabolism ; Cyclic AMP/metabolism ; Cyclic GMP/metabolism ; GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gi-Go/physiology ; Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental ; Genes, Helminth ; Guanylate Cyclase/antagonists & inhibitors/metabolism ; Hexoses/chemistry/physiology ; Humans ; Mutation ; Pheromones/*physiology ; Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled ; Reproduction ; Signal Transduction ; Transfection
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2012-12-12
    Description: Mouse primordial germ cells (PGCs) undergo sequential epigenetic changes and genome-wide DNA demethylation to reset the epigenome for totipotency. Here, we demonstrate that erasure of CpG methylation (5mC) in PGCs occurs via conversion to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), driven by high levels of TET1 and TET2. Global conversion to 5hmC initiates asynchronously among PGCs at embryonic day (E) 9.5 to E10.5 and accounts for the unique process of imprint erasure. Mechanistically, 5hmC enrichment is followed by its protracted decline thereafter at a rate consistent with replication-coupled dilution. The conversion to 5hmC is an important component of parallel redundant systems that drive comprehensive reprogramming in PGCs. Nonetheless, we identify rare regulatory elements that escape systematic DNA demethylation in PGCs, providing a potential mechanistic basis for transgenerational epigenetic inheritance.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3847602/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3847602/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hackett, Jamie A -- Sengupta, Roopsha -- Zylicz, Jan J -- Murakami, Kazuhiro -- Lee, Caroline -- Down, Thomas A -- Surani, M Azim -- 079249/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 083089/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 083563/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 092096/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- RG44593/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- RG49135/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Jan 25;339(6118):448-52. doi: 10.1126/science.1229277. Epub 2012 Dec 6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Wellcome Trust/Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1QN, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23223451" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: 5-Methylcytosine/metabolism ; Animals ; CpG Islands ; Cytosine/*analogs & derivatives/metabolism ; *DNA Methylation ; DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Embryo, Mammalian/*metabolism ; Embryonic Development ; *Epigenesis, Genetic ; Female ; *Genomic Imprinting ; Germ Cells/*metabolism ; Germ Layers/cytology ; Male ; Mice ; Promoter Regions, Genetic ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2000-01-15
    Description: Coherent wave propagation in disordered media gives rise to many fascinating phenomena as diverse as universal conductance fluctuations in mesoscopic metals and speckle patterns in light scattering. Here, the theory of electromagnetic wave propagation in diffusive media is combined with information theory to show how interference affects the information transmission rate between antenna arrays. Nontrivial dependencies of the information capacity on the nature of the antenna arrays are found, such as the dimensionality of the arrays and their direction with respect to the local scattering medium. This approach provides a physical picture for understanding the importance of scattering in the transfer of information through wireless communications.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Moustakas -- Baranger -- Balents -- Sengupta -- Simon -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2000 Jan 14;287(5451):287-90.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Bell Labs, Lucent Technologies, 700 Mountain Avenue, Murray Hill, NJ 07974, USA. Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708-0305, USA. Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10634779" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2006-12-02
    Description: Against a backdrop of rising global surface temperature, the stability of the Indian monsoon rainfall over the past century has been a puzzle. By using a daily rainfall data set, we show (i) significant rising trends in the frequency and the magnitude of extreme rain events and (ii) a significant decreasing trend in the frequency of moderate events over central India during the monsoon seasons from 1951 to 2000. The seasonal mean rainfall does not show a significant trend, because the contribution from increasing heavy events is offset by decreasing moderate events. A substantial increase in hazards related to heavy rain is expected over central India in the future.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Goswami, B N -- Venugopal, V -- Sengupta, D -- Madhusoodanan, M S -- Xavier, Prince K -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2006 Dec 1;314(5804):1442-5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Doctor Homi Bhabha Road, Pashan, Pune 411 008, India. goswami@tropmet.res.in〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17138899" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2014-01-18
    Description: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) hijacks the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) to mediate virus release from infected cells. The nanoscale organization of ESCRT machinery necessary for mediating viral abscission is unclear. Here, we applied three-dimensional superresolution microscopy and correlative electron microscopy to delineate the organization of ESCRT components at HIV assembly sites. We observed ESCRT subunits localized within the head of budding virions and released particles, with head-localized levels of CHMP2A decreasing relative to Tsg101 and CHMP4B upon virus abscission. Thus, the driving force for HIV release may derive from initial scaffolding of ESCRT subunits within the viral bud interior followed by plasma membrane association and selective remodeling of ESCRT subunits.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Van Engelenburg, Schuyler B -- Shtengel, Gleb -- Sengupta, Prabuddha -- Waki, Kayoko -- Jarnik, Michal -- Ablan, Sherimay D -- Freed, Eric O -- Hess, Harald F -- Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Feb 7;343(6171):653-6. doi: 10.1126/science.1247786. Epub 2014 Jan 16.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Cell Biology and Metabolism Program, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24436186" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Endosomal Sorting Complexes Required for Transport/*metabolism ; HIV Infections/*virology ; HIV-1/metabolism/*physiology ; Humans ; Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods ; Microscopy/methods ; Protein Subunits/metabolism ; Virion/metabolism/*physiology ; *Virus Assembly ; Virus Release ; gag Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/metabolism
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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