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  • 1
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈p〉Introduction of legal rights for nature could protect natural systems from destruction〈/p〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2005-09-24
    Description: A major challenge in predicting Earth's future climate state is to understand feedbacks that alter greenhouse-gas forcing. Here we synthesize field data from arctic Alaska, showing that terrestrial changes in summer albedo contribute substantially to recent high-latitude warming trends. Pronounced terrestrial summer warming in arctic Alaska correlates with a lengthening of the snow-free season that has increased atmospheric heating locally by about 3 watts per square meter per decade (similar in magnitude to the regional heating expected over multiple decades from a doubling of atmospheric CO2). The continuation of current trends in shrub and tree expansion could further amplify this atmospheric heating by two to seven times.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Chapin, F S 3rd -- Sturm, M -- Serreze, M C -- McFadden, J P -- Key, J R -- Lloyd, A H -- McGuire, A D -- Rupp, T S -- Lynch, A H -- Schimel, J P -- Beringer, J -- Chapman, W L -- Epstein, H E -- Euskirchen, E S -- Hinzman, L D -- Jia, G -- Ping, C-L -- Tape, K D -- Thompson, C D C -- Walker, D A -- Welker, J M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2005 Oct 28;310(5748):657-60. Epub 2005 Sep 22.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institute of Arctic Biology; University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775, USA. terry.chapin@uaf.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16179434" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Alaska ; Arctic Regions ; *Greenhouse Effect ; Picea ; Seasons ; Trees
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2006-08-19
    Description: Gans et al. (Reports, 26 August 2005, p. 1387) provided an estimate of soil bacterial species richness two orders of magnitude greater than previously reported values. Using a re-derived mathematical model, we reanalyzed the data and found that the statistical error exceeds the estimate by a factor of 26. We also note two potential sources of error in the experimental data collection and measurement procedures.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bunge, John -- Epstein, Slava S -- Peterson, Daniel G -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2006 Aug 18;313(5789):918; author reply 918.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Statistical Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA. jab18@cornell.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16917045" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Bacteria/genetics/*growth & development ; *Biodiversity ; DNA, Bacterial/*analysis ; Kinetics ; Mathematics ; Metals, Heavy/analysis/*toxicity ; Models, Biological ; Nucleic Acid Renaturation ; *Soil Microbiology ; Soil Pollutants/analysis/*toxicity ; Statistics as Topic
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-09-10
    Description: Our goal is to develop a vaccine that sustainably prevents Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) malaria in 〉/=80% of recipients. Pf sporozoites (PfSPZ) administered by mosquito bites are the only immunogens shown to induce such protection in humans. Such protection is thought to be mediated by CD8(+) T cells in the liver that secrete interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). We report that purified irradiated PfSPZ administered to 80 volunteers by needle inoculation in the skin was safe, but suboptimally immunogenic and protective. Animal studies demonstrated that intravenous immunization was critical for inducing a high frequency of PfSPZ-specific CD8(+), IFN-gamma-producing T cells in the liver (nonhuman primates, mice) and conferring protection (mice). Our results suggest that intravenous administration of this vaccine will lead to the prevention of infection with Pf malaria.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Epstein, J E -- Tewari, K -- Lyke, K E -- Sim, B K L -- Billingsley, P F -- Laurens, M B -- Gunasekera, A -- Chakravarty, S -- James, E R -- Sedegah, M -- Richman, A -- Velmurugan, S -- Reyes, S -- Li, M -- Tucker, K -- Ahumada, A -- Ruben, A J -- Li, T -- Stafford, R -- Eappen, A G -- Tamminga, C -- Bennett, J W -- Ockenhouse, C F -- Murphy, J R -- Komisar, J -- Thomas, N -- Loyevsky, M -- Birkett, A -- Plowe, C V -- Loucq, C -- Edelman, R -- Richie, T L -- Seder, R A -- Hoffman, S L -- 5R44AI055229-07/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- 5R44AI058375-05/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- 5R44AI058499-05/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Oct 28;334(6055):475-80. doi: 10.1126/science.1211548. Epub 2011 Sep 8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉U.S. Military Malaria Vaccine Program, Naval Medical Research Center, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21903775" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adolescent ; Adult ; Animals ; Antibodies, Protozoan/blood/immunology ; Antigens, Protozoan/immunology ; CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/*immunology ; Humans ; Injections, Intravenous ; Injections, Subcutaneous ; Interferon-gamma/biosynthesis/immunology ; Liver/*immunology ; Macaca mulatta ; Malaria Vaccines/administration & dosage/adverse effects/*immunology ; Malaria, Falciparum/*prevention & control ; Mice ; Middle Aged ; Plasmodium falciparum/*immunology ; Rabbits ; Sporozoites/*immunology ; Vaccines, Attenuated/administration & dosage/adverse effects/immunology ; Young Adult
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2012-04-14
    Description: Drug use and relapse involve learned associations between drug-associated environmental cues and drug effects. Extinction procedures in the clinic can suppress conditioned responses to drug cues, but the extinguished responses typically reemerge after exposure to the drug itself (reinstatement), the drug-associated environment (renewal), or the passage of time (spontaneous recovery). We describe a memory retrieval-extinction procedure that decreases conditioned drug effects and drug seeking in rat models of relapse, and drug craving in abstinent heroin addicts. In rats, daily retrieval of drug-associated memories 10 minutes or 1 hour but not 6 hours before extinction sessions attenuated drug-induced reinstatement, spontaneous recovery, and renewal of conditioned drug effects and drug seeking. In heroin addicts, retrieval of drug-associated memories 10 minutes before extinction sessions attenuated cue-induced heroin craving 1, 30, and 180 days later. The memory retrieval-extinction procedure is a promising nonpharmacological method for decreasing drug craving and relapse during abstinence.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3695463/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3695463/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Xue, Yan-Xue -- Luo, Yi-Xiao -- Wu, Ping -- Shi, Hai-Shui -- Xue, Li-Fen -- Chen, Chen -- Zhu, Wei-Li -- Ding, Zeng-Bo -- Bao, Yan-ping -- Shi, Jie -- Epstein, David H -- Shaham, Yavin -- Lu, Lin -- Z99 DA999999/Intramural NIH HHS/ -- ZIA DA000434-12/Intramural NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 Apr 13;336(6078):241-5. doi: 10.1126/science.1215070.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉National Institute on Drug Dependence, Peking University, Beijing, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22499948" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amygdala/enzymology ; Animals ; Behavior, Addictive/*prevention & control ; Cocaine/administration & dosage ; Cocaine-Related Disorders/*psychology/therapy ; Conditioning, Classical ; Conditioning, Operant ; Cues ; *Extinction, Psychological ; Heroin/administration & dosage ; Heroin Dependence/*psychology/therapy ; Humans ; Male ; *Memory ; Mental Recall ; Models, Animal ; Prefrontal Cortex/enzymology ; Protein Kinase C/metabolism ; Rats ; Rats, Sprague-Dawley ; Recurrence ; Self Administration ; Time Factors
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 1994-08-19
    Description: Tree rings from three dendrochronologically dated bristlecone pines were analyzed for stable hydrogen isotopic composition. These trees give a continuous time series from 8000 years ago to the present that indicates the presence of a postglacial climate optimum 6800 years ago and a continuous cooling since then. The qualitative agreement between this record and records from other sources, such as ice cores, pollen, and treeline fluctuations, indicates that these climate changes were global. This record can serve as a reference for other climate indicators throughout the past 8000 years.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Feng, X -- Epstein, S -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1994 Aug 19;265(5175):1079-81.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17832901" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1996-08-16
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Epstein, G L -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1996 Aug 16;273(5277):860e.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17839584" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 1996-06-14
    Description: The basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS) is characterized by developmental abnormalities and by the postnatal occurrence of cancers, especially basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), the most common human cancer. Heritable mutations in BCNS patients and a somatic mutation in a sporadic BCC were identified in a human homolog of the Drosophila patched (ptc) gene. The ptc gene encodes a transmembrane protein that in Drosophila acts in opposition to the Hedgehog signaling protein, controlling cell fates, patterning, and growth in numerous tissues. The human PTC gene appears to be crucial for proper embryonic development and for tumor suppression.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Johnson, R L -- Rothman, A L -- Xie, J -- Goodrich, L V -- Bare, J W -- Bonifas, J M -- Quinn, A G -- Myers, R M -- Cox, D R -- Epstein, E H Jr -- Scott, M P -- AR3995/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1996 Jun 14;272(5268):1668-71.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Developmental Biology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, California 94305-5427, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8658145" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome/*genetics ; Base Sequence ; Cloning, Molecular ; DNA, Neoplasm ; Drosophila ; *Drosophila Proteins ; Female ; Frameshift Mutation ; *Genes, Tumor Suppressor ; Humans ; Insect Hormones/genetics ; Male ; Membrane Proteins/*genetics ; Middle Aged ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Polymerase Chain Reaction ; Polymorphism, Single-Stranded Conformational ; Protein Conformation ; Receptors, Cell Surface
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    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1998-07-21
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Epstein, E -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1998 Jun 19;280(5371):1906-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Land, Air and Water Resources-Soils and Biogeochemistry, Universsity of California at Davis 95616-8627, USA. eqepstein@ucdavis.e eqepstein@ucdavis.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9669949" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Arabidopsis/genetics/metabolism ; *Arabidopsis Proteins ; Calcium/*metabolism ; Genes, Plant ; Ion Transport ; Mutation ; Plant Proteins/chemistry/*genetics/*metabolism ; Plants/genetics/*metabolism ; Potassium/metabolism ; Second Messenger Systems ; Signal Transduction ; Sodium/metabolism/*pharmacology ; Water/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2001-04-09
    Description: The Drosophila melanogaster gene insulin-like receptor (InR) is homologous to mammalian insulin receptors as well as to Caenorhabditis elegans daf-2, a signal transducer regulating worm dauer formation and adult longevity. We describe a heteroallelic, hypomorphic genotype of mutant InR, which yields dwarf females with up to an 85% extension of adult longevity and dwarf males with reduced late age-specific mortality. Treatment of the long-lived InR dwarfs with a juvenile hormone analog restores life expectancy toward that of wild-type controls. We conclude that juvenile hormone deficiency, which results from InR signal pathway mutation, is sufficient to extend life-span, and that in flies, insulin-like ligands nonautonomously mediate aging through retardation of growth or activation of specific endocrine tissue.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Tatar, M -- Kopelman, A -- Epstein, D -- Tu, M P -- Yin, C M -- Garofalo, R S -- R01 AG16632/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2001 Apr 6;292(5514):107-10.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, USA., University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA. Marc_Tatar@Brown.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11292875" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aging/*physiology ; Alleles ; Animals ; Carrier Proteins/*genetics/*physiology ; Corpora Allata/*metabolism ; *Drosophila Proteins ; Drosophila melanogaster/genetics/*physiology ; Female ; Fertility ; Genes, Insect ; Genotype ; Insulin/pharmacology ; Juvenile Hormones/metabolism ; Longevity/*physiology ; Male ; Methoprene/pharmacology ; Mutation ; Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/*genetics/*physiology ; *Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases ; Receptor, Insulin/genetics/physiology ; Reproduction ; Signal Transduction ; Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism ; Triglycerides/metabolism ; Vitellogenesis/drug effects
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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