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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2007-11-10
    Description: Using data collected at the Pierre Auger Observatory during the past 3.7 years, we demonstrated a correlation between the arrival directions of cosmic rays with energy above 6 x 10(19) electron volts and the positions of active galactic nuclei (AGN) lying within approximately 75 megaparsecs. We rejected the hypothesis of an isotropic distribution of these cosmic rays with at least a 99% confidence level from a prescribed a priori test. The correlation we observed is compatible with the hypothesis that the highest-energy particles originate from nearby extragalactic sources whose flux has not been substantially reduced by interaction with the cosmic background radiation. AGN or objects having a similar spatial distribution are possible sources.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pierre Auger Collaboration -- Abraham, J -- Abreu, P -- Aglietta, M -- Aguirre, C -- Allard, D -- Allekotte, I -- Allen, J -- Allison, P -- Alvarez, C -- Alvarez-Muniz, J -- Ambrosio, M -- Anchordoqui, L -- Andringa, S -- Anzalone, A -- Aramo, C -- Argiro, S -- Arisaka, K -- Armengaud, E -- Arneodo, F -- Arqueros, F -- Asch, T -- Asorey, H -- Assis, P -- Atulugama, B S -- Aublin, J -- Ave, M -- Avila, G -- Backer, T -- Badagnani, D -- Barbosa, A F -- Barnhill, D -- Barroso, S L C -- Bauleo, P -- Beatty, J -- Beau, T -- Becker, B R -- Becker, K H -- Bellido, J A -- Benzvi, S -- Berat, C -- Bergmann, T -- Bernardini, P -- Bertou, X -- Biermann, P L -- Billoir, P -- Blanch-Bigas, O -- Blanco, F -- Blasi, P -- Bleve, C -- Blumer, H -- Bohacova, M -- Bonifazi, C -- Bonino, R -- Boratav, M -- Brack, J -- Brogueira, P -- Brown, W C -- Buchholz, P -- Bueno, A -- Busca, N G -- Caballero-Mora, K S -- Cai, B -- Camin, D V -- Caruso, R -- Carvalho, W -- Castellina, A -- Catalano, O -- Cataldi, G -- Cazon-Boado, L -- Cester, R -- Chauvin, J -- Chiavassa, A -- Chinellato, J A -- Chou, A -- Chye, J -- Clark, P D J -- Clay, R W -- Colombo, E -- Conceicao, R -- Connolly, B -- Contreras, F -- Coppens, J -- Cordier, A -- Cotti, U -- Coutu, S -- Covault, C E -- Creusot, A -- Cronin, J -- Dagoret-Campagne, S -- Daumiller, K -- Dawson, B R -- de Almeida, R M -- De Donato, C -- de Jong, S J -- De La Vega, G -- de Mello Junior, W J M -- de Mello Neto, J R T -- De Mitri, I -- de Souza, V -- Del Peral, L -- Deligny, O -- Selva, A Della -- Fratte, C Delle -- Dembinski, H -- Di Giulio, C -- Diaz, J C -- Dobrigkeit, C -- D'Olivo, J C -- Dornic, D -- Dorofeev, A -- Dos Anjos, J C -- Dova, M T -- D'Urso, D -- Duvernois, M A -- Engel, R -- Epele, L -- Erdmann, M -- Escobar, C O -- Etchegoyen, A -- Facal San Luis, P -- Falcke, H -- Farrar, G -- Fauth, A C -- Fazzini, N -- Fernandez, A -- Ferrer, F -- Ferry, S -- Fick, B -- Filevich, A -- Filipcic, A -- Fleck, I -- Fonte, R -- Fracchiolla, C E -- Fulgione, W -- Garcia, B -- Garcia Gamez, D -- Garcia-Pinto, D -- Garrido, X -- Geenen, H -- Gelmini, G -- Gemmeke, H -- Ghia, P L -- Giller, M -- Glass, H -- Gold, M S -- Golup, G -- Albarracin, F Gomez -- Berisso, M Gomez -- Herrero, R Gomez -- Goncalves, P -- Goncalves do Amaral, M -- Gonzalez, D -- Gonzalez, J G -- Gonzalez, M -- Gora, D -- Gorgi, A -- Gouffon, P -- Grassi, V -- Grillo, A -- Grunfeld, C -- Guardincerri, Y -- Guarino, F -- Guedes, G P -- Gutierrez, J -- Hague, J D -- Hamilton, J C -- Hansen, P -- Harari, D -- Harmsma, S -- Harton, J L -- Haungs, A -- Hauschildt, T -- Healy, M D -- Hebbeker, T -- Heck, D -- Hojvat, C -- Holmes, V C -- Homola, P -- Horandel, J -- Horneffer, A -- Horvat, M -- Hrabovsky, M -- Huege, T -- Iarlori, M -- Insolia, A -- Ionita, F -- Italiano, A -- Kaducak, M -- Kampert, K H -- Keilhauer, B -- Kemp, E -- Kieckhafer, R M -- Klages, H O -- Kleifges, M -- Kleinfeller, J -- Knapik, R -- Knapp, J -- Koang, D-H -- Kopmann, A -- Krieger, A -- Kromer, O -- Kumpel, D -- Kunka, N -- Kusenko, A -- La Rosa, G -- Lachaud, C -- Lago, B L -- Lebrun, D -- Lebrun, P -- Lee, J -- Leigui de Oliveira, M A -- Letessier-Selvon, A -- Leuthold, M -- Lhenry-Yvon, I -- Lopez, R -- Lopez Aguera, A -- Lozano Bahilo, J -- Maccarone, M C -- Macolino, C -- Maldera, S -- Malek, M -- Mancarella, G -- Mancenido, M E -- Mandat, D -- Mantsch, P -- Mariazzi, A G -- Maris, I C -- Martello, D -- Martinez, J -- Martinez Bravo, O -- Mathes, H J -- Matthews, J -- Matthews, J A J -- Matthiae, G -- Maurizio, D -- Mazur, P O -- McCauley, T -- McEwen, M -- McNeil, R R -- Medina, M C -- Medina-Tanco, G -- Meli, A -- Melo, D -- Menichetti, E -- Menschikov, A -- Meurer, Chr -- Meyhandan, R -- Micheletti, M I -- Miele, G -- Miller, W -- Mollerach, S -- Monasor, M -- Monnier Ragaigne, D -- Montanet, F -- Morales, B -- Morello, C -- Moreno, E -- Moreno, J C -- Morris, C -- Mostafa, M -- Muller, M A -- Mussa, R -- Navarra, G -- Navarro, J L -- Navas, S -- Nellen, L -- Newman-Holmes, C -- Newton, D -- Thi, T Nguyen -- Nierstenhofer, N -- Nitz, D -- Nosek, D -- Nozka, L -- Oehlschlager, J -- Ohnuki, T -- Olinto, A -- Olmos-Gilbaja, V M -- Ortiz, M -- Ostapchenko, S -- Otero, L -- Pakk Selmi-Dei, D -- Palatka, M -- Pallotta, J -- Parente, G -- Parizot, E -- Parlati, S -- Pastor, S -- Patel, M -- Paul, T -- Pavlidou, V -- Payet, K -- Pech, M -- Pekala, J -- Pelayo, R -- Pepe, I M -- Perrone, L -- Petrera, S -- Petrinca, P -- Petrov, Y -- Ngoc, Dieppham -- Ngoc, Dongpham -- Pham Thi, T N -- Pichel, A -- Piegaia, R -- Pierog, T -- Pimenta, M -- Pinto, T -- Pirronello, V -- Pisanti, O -- Platino, M -- Pochon, J -- Porter, T A -- Privitera, P -- Prouza, M -- Quel, E J -- Rautenberg, J -- Reucroft, S -- Revenu, B -- Rezende, F A S -- Ridky, J -- Riggi, S -- Risse, M -- Riviere, C -- Rizi, V -- Roberts, M -- Robledo, C -- Rodriguez, G -- Rodriguez Frias, D -- Rodriguez Martino, J -- Rodriguez Rojo, J -- Rodriguez-Cabo, I -- Ros, G -- Rosado, J -- Roth, M -- Rouille-d'Orfeuil, B -- Roulet, E -- Rovero, A C -- Salamida, F -- Salazar, H -- Salina, G -- Sanchez, F -- Santander, M -- Santo, C E -- Santos, E M -- Sarazin, F -- Sarkar, S -- Sato, R -- Scherini, V -- Schieler, H -- Schmidt, F -- Schmidt, T -- Scholten, O -- Schovanek, P -- Schussler, F -- Sciutto, S J -- Scuderi, M -- Segreto, A -- Semikoz, D -- Settimo, M -- Shellard, R C -- Sidelnik, I -- Siffert, B B -- Sigl, G -- De Grande, N Smetniansky -- Smialkowski, A -- Smida, R -- Smith, A G K -- Smith, B E -- Snow, G R -- Sokolsky, P -- Sommers, P -- Sorokin, J -- Spinka, H -- Squartini, R -- Strazzeri, E -- Stutz, A -- Suarez, F -- Suomijarvi, T -- Supanitsky, A D -- Sutherland, M S -- Swain, J -- Szadkowski, Z -- Takahashi, J -- Tamashiro, A -- Tamburro, A -- Tascau, O -- Tcaciuc, R -- Thomas, D -- Ticona, R -- Tiffenberg, J -- Timmermans, C -- Tkaczyk, W -- Todero Peixoto, C J -- Tome, B -- Tonachini, A -- Torresi, D -- Travnicek, P -- Tripathi, A -- Tristram, G -- Tscherniakhovski, D -- Tueros, M -- Tunnicliffe, V -- Ulrich, R -- Unger, M -- Urban, M -- Valdes Galicia, J F -- Valino, I -- Valore, L -- van den Berg, A M -- van Elewyck, V -- Vazquez, R A -- Veberic, D -- Veiga, A -- Velarde, A -- Venters, T -- Verzi, V -- Videla, M -- Villasenor, L -- Vorobiov, S -- Voyvodic, L -- Wahlberg, H -- Wainberg, O -- Waldenmaier, T -- Walker, P -- Warner, D -- Watson, A A -- Westerhoff, S -- Wieczorek, G -- Wiencke, L -- Wilczynska, B -- Wilczynski, H -- Wileman, C -- Winnick, M G -- Wu, H -- Wundheiler, B -- Xu, J -- Yamamoto, T -- Younk, P -- Zas, E -- Zavrtanik, D -- Zavrtanik, M -- Zech, A -- Zepeda, A -- Ziolkowski, M -- Kegl, B -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2007 Nov 9;318(5852):938-43.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17991855" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-02-23
    Description: The extent and nature of symbolic behavior among Neandertals are obscure. Although evidence for Neandertal body ornamentation has been proposed, all cave painting has been attributed to modern humans. Here we present dating results for three sites in Spain that show that cave art emerged in Iberia substantially earlier than previously thought. Uranium-thorium (U-Th) dates on carbonate crusts overlying paintings provide minimum ages for a red linear motif in La Pasiega (Cantabria), a hand stencil in Maltravieso (Extremadura), and red-painted speleothems in Ardales (Andalucía). Collectively, these results show that cave art in Iberia is older than 64.8 thousand years (ka). This cave art is the earliest dated so far and predates, by at least 20 ka, the arrival of modern humans in Europe, which implies Neandertal authorship.
    Keywords: Anthropology
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2010-03-13
    Description: A major challenge in quantum optics and quantum information technology is to enhance the interaction between single photons and single quantum emitters. This requires highly engineered optical cavities that are inherently sensitive to fabrication imperfections. We have demonstrated a fundamentally different approach in which disorder is used as a resource rather than a nuisance. We generated strongly confined Anderson-localized cavity modes by deliberately adding disorder to photonic crystal waveguides. The emission rate of a semiconductor quantum dot embedded in the waveguide was enhanced by a factor of 15 on resonance with the Anderson-localized mode, and 94% of the emitted single photons coupled to the mode. Disordered photonic media thus provide an efficient platform for quantum electrodynamics, offering an approach to inherently disorder-robust quantum information devices.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Sapienza, Luca -- Thyrrestrup, Henri -- Stobbe, Soren -- Garcia, Pedro David -- Smolka, Stephan -- Lodahl, Peter -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2010 Mar 12;327(5971):1352-5. doi: 10.1126/science.1185080.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉DTU Fotonik, Department of Photonics Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Orsteds Plads 343, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark. lucs@fotonik.dtu.dk〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20223981" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 1997-01-17
    Description: Transmembrane receptors for hormones, neurotransmitters, light, and odorants mediate their cellular effects by activating heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins). Crystal structures have revealed contact surfaces between G protein subunits, but not the surfaces or molecular mechanism through which Galphabetagamma responds to activation by transmembrane receptors. Such a surface was identified from the results of testing 100 mutant alpha subunits of the retinal G protein transducin for their ability to interact with rhodopsin. Sites at which alanine substitutions impaired this interaction mapped to two distinct Galpha surfaces: a betagamma-binding surface and a putative receptor-interacting surface. On the basis of these results a mechanism for receptor-catalyzed exchange of guanosine diphosphate for guanosine triphosphate is proposed.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Onrust, R -- Herzmark, P -- Chi, P -- Garcia, P D -- Lichtarge, O -- Kingsley, C -- Bourne, H R -- CA-54427/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- GM-27800/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1997 Jan 17;275(5298):381-4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143-0450, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8994033" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aluminum Compounds/pharmacology ; Animals ; Binding Sites ; COS Cells ; Fluorides/pharmacology ; Guanosine 5'-O-(3-Thiotriphosphate)/metabolism ; Guanosine Diphosphate/metabolism ; Models, Molecular ; Mutation ; Phenotype ; *Protein Conformation ; Retinaldehyde/pharmacology ; Rhodopsin/*metabolism/pharmacology ; Rod Cell Outer Segment/metabolism ; Transducin/*chemistry/metabolism
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2006-09-02
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Garcia, Diane -- Stokstad, Erik -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2006 Sep 1;313(5791):1226-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16946047" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Conservation of Natural Resources/*economics/history ; *Felidae ; Fellowships and Scholarships ; *Fund Raising ; History, 20th Century ; History, 21st Century ; Research Support as Topic ; United States
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2009-07-25
    Description: Nanoelectromechanical resonators have potential applications in sensing, cooling, and mechanical signal processing. An important parameter in these systems is the strength of coupling the resonator motion to charge transport through the device. We investigated the mechanical oscillations of a suspended single-walled carbon nanotube that also acts as a single-electron transistor. The coupling of the mechanical and the charge degrees of freedom is strikingly strong as well as widely tunable (the associated damping rate is approximately 3 x 10(6) Hz). In particular, the coupling is strong enough to drive the oscillations in the nonlinear regime.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lassagne, Benjamin -- Tarakanov, Yury -- Kinaret, Jari -- Garcia-Sanchez, Daniel -- Bachtold, Adrian -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Aug 28;325(5944):1107-10. doi: 10.1126/science.1174290. Epub 2009 Jul 23.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Centre d'Investigacio en Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas-Institut Catala de Nanotecnologia), campus Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Barcelona, Spain.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19628818" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈p〉Although tunable signaling by G protein–coupled receptors can be exploited through medicinal chemistry, a comparable pharmacological approach has been lacking for the modulation of signaling through dimeric receptors, such as those for cytokines. We present a strategy to modulate cytokine receptor signaling output by use of a series of designed C2-symmetric cytokine mimetics, based on the designed ankyrin repeat protein (DARPin) scaffold, that can systematically control erythropoietin receptor (EpoR) dimerization orientation and distance between monomers. We sampled a range of EpoR geometries by varying intermonomer angle and distance, corroborated by several ligand-EpoR complex crystal structures. Across the range, we observed full, partial, and biased agonism as well as stage-selective effects on hematopoiesis. This surrogate ligand strategy opens access to pharmacological modulation of therapeutically important cytokine and growth factor receptor systems.〈/p〉
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    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈p〉The evolution of flight in birds involves (i) decoupling of the primitive mode of quadrupedal locomotor coordination, with a new synchronized flapping motion of the wings while conserving alternating leg movements, and (ii) reduction of wing digits and loss of functional claws. Our observations show that hoatzin nestlings move with alternated walking coordination of the four limbs using the mobile claws on their wings to anchor themselves to the substrate. When swimming, hoatzin nestlings use a coordinated motion of the four limbs involving synchronous or alternated movements of the wings, indicating a versatile motor pattern. Last, the proportions of claws and phalanges in juvenile hoatzin are radically divergent from those in adults, yet strikingly similar to those of 〈i〉Archaeopteryx.〈/i〉 The locomotor plasticity observed in the hoatzin suggests that transitional forms that retained claws on the wings could have also used them for locomotion.〈/p〉
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-10-12
    Description: Slimak et al . challenge the reliability of our oldest (〉65,000 years) U-Th dates on carbonates associated with cave paintings in Spain. They cite a supposed lack of parietal art for the 25,000 years following this date, along with potential methodological issues relating to open-system behavior and corrections to detrital or source water 230 Th. We show that their criticisms are unfounded.
    Keywords: Anthropology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2015-06-21
    Description: The oft-repeated claim that Earth’s biota is entering a sixth "mass extinction" depends on clearly demonstrating that current extinction rates are far above the "background" rates prevailing in the five previous mass extinctions. Earlier estimates of extinction rates have been criticized for using assumptions that might overestimate the severity of the extinction crisis. We assess, using extremely conservative assumptions, whether human activities are causing a mass extinction. First, we use a recent estimate of a background rate of 2 mammal extinctions per 10,000 species per 100 years (that is, 2 E/MSY), which is twice as high as widely used previous estimates. We then compare this rate with the current rate of mammal and vertebrate extinctions. The latter is conservatively low because listing a species as extinct requires meeting stringent criteria. Even under our assumptions, which would tend to minimize evidence of an incipient mass extinction, the average rate of vertebrate species loss over the last century is up to 114 times higher than the background rate. Under the 2 E/MSY background rate, the number of species that have gone extinct in the last century would have taken, depending on the vertebrate taxon, between 800 and 10,000 years to disappear. These estimates reveal an exceptionally rapid loss of biodiversity over the last few centuries, indicating that a sixth mass extinction is already under way. Averting a dramatic decay of biodiversity and the subsequent loss of ecosystem services is still possible through intensified conservation efforts, but that window of opportunity is rapidly closing.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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