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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2017-10-05
    Description: Seabed-hugging flows called turbidity currents are the volumetrically most important process transporting sediment across our planet and form its largest sediment accumulations. We seek to understand the internal structure and behavior of turbidity currents by reanalyzing the most detailed direct measurements yet of velocities and densities within oceanic turbidity currents, obtained from weeklong flows in the Congo Canyon. We provide a new model for turbidity current structure that can explain why these are far more prolonged than all previously monitored oceanic turbidity currents, which lasted for only hours or minutes at other locations. The observed Congo Canyon flows consist of a short-lived zone of fast and dense fluid at their front, which outruns the slower moving body of the flow. We propose that the sustained duration of these turbidity currents results from flow stretching and that this stretching is characteristic of mud-rich turbidity current systems. The lack of stretching in previously monitored flows is attributed to coarser sediment that settles out from the body more rapidly. These prolonged seafloor flows rival the discharge of the Congo River and carry ~2% of the terrestrial organic carbon buried globally in the oceans each year through a single submarine canyon. Thus, this new structure explains sustained flushing of globally important amounts of sediment, organic carbon, nutrients, and fresh water into the deep ocean.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-10-04
    Description: Measuring motor skill proficiency is critical for the certification of highly skilled individuals in numerous fields. However, conventional measures use subjective metrics that often cannot distinguish between expertise levels. We present an advanced optical neuroimaging methodology that can objectively and successfully classify subjects with different expertise levels associated with bimanual motor dexterity. The methodology was tested by assessing laparoscopic surgery skills within the framework of the fundamentals of a laparoscopic surgery program, which is a prerequisite for certification in general surgery. We demonstrate that optical-based metrics outperformed current metrics for surgical certification in classifying subjects with varying surgical expertise. Moreover, we report that optical neuroimaging allows for the successful classification of subjects during the acquisition of these skills.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈p〉Tough, biological materials (e.g., collagen or titin) protect tissues from irreversible damage caused by external loads. Mimicking these protective properties is important in packaging and in emerging applications such as durable electronic skins and soft robotics. This paper reports the formation of tough, metamaterial-like core-shell fibers that maintain stress at the fracture strength of a metal throughout the strain of an elastomer. The shell experiences localized strain enhancements that cause the higher modulus core to fracture repeatedly, increasing the energy dissipated during extension. Normally, fractures are catastrophic. However, in this architecture, the fractures are localized to the core. In addition to dissipating energy, the metallic core provides electrical conductivity and enables repair of the fractured core for repeated use. The fibers are 2.5 times tougher than titin and hold more than 15,000 times their own weight for a period 100 times longer than a hollow elastomeric fiber.〈/p〉
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018
    Description: 〈p〉Measuring motor skill proficiency is critical for the certification of highly skilled individuals in numerous fields. However, conventional measures use subjective metrics that often cannot distinguish between expertise levels. We present an advanced optical neuroimaging methodology that can objectively and successfully classify subjects with different expertise levels associated with bimanual motor dexterity. The methodology was tested by assessing laparoscopic surgery skills within the framework of the fundamentals of a laparoscopic surgery program, which is a prerequisite for certification in general surgery. We demonstrate that optical-based metrics outperformed current metrics for surgical certification in classifying subjects with varying surgical expertise. Moreover, we report that optical neuroimaging allows for the successful classification of subjects during the acquisition of these skills.〈/p〉
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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