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  • 1
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1998-09-25
    Description: Cultivation of fungi for food by fungus-growing ants (Attini: Formicidae) originated about 50 million years ago. The subsequent evolutionary history of this agricultural symbiosis was inferred from phylogenetic and population-genetic patterns of 553 cultivars isolated from gardens of "primitive" fungus-growing ants. These patterns indicate that fungus-growing ants succeeded at domesticating multiple cultivars, that the ants are capable of switching to novel cultivars, that single ant species farm a diversity of cultivars, and that cultivars are shared occasionally between distantly related ant species, probably by lateral transfer between ant colonies.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Mueller -- Rehner -- Schultz -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1998 Sep 25;281(5385):2034-8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉U. G. Mueller, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Apartado 2072, Balboa, Republic of Panama, and Department of Biology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA. S. A. Rehner, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Apart.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9748164" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2003-01-18
    Description: The symbiosis between fungus-growing ants and the fungi they cultivate for food has been shaped by 50 million years of coevolution. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that this long coevolutionary history includes a third symbiont lineage: specialized microfungal parasites of the ants' fungus gardens. At ancient levels, the phylogenies of the three symbionts are perfectly congruent, revealing that the ant-microbe symbiosis is the product of tripartite coevolution between the farming ants, their cultivars, and the garden parasites. At recent phylogenetic levels, coevolution has been punctuated by occasional host-switching by the parasite, thus intensifying continuous coadaptation between symbionts in a tripartite arms race.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Currie, Cameron R -- Wong, Bess -- Stuart, Alison E -- Schultz, Ted R -- Rehner, Stephen A -- Mueller, Ulrich G -- Sung, Gi-Ho -- Spatafora, Joseph W -- Straus, Neil A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2003 Jan 17;299(5605):386-8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045, USA. ccurrie@ku.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12532015" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Agaricales/growth & development/*physiology ; Animals ; Ants/microbiology/*physiology ; Ascomycota/physiology ; Bacterial Physiological Phenomena ; *Biological Evolution ; DNA, Fungal/analysis/genetics ; Hypocreales/classification/growth & development/isolation & ; purification/*physiology ; Phylogeny ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; *Symbiosis
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 1991-10-18
    Description: In eusocial Hymenoptera, the haplodiploid system of sex determination creates relatedness asymmetries such that workers are more closely related on average to their sisters than to their brothers. For such societies, kin-selection theory and sex-ratio theory predict that workers maximize their inclusive fitness by biasing the investment sex ratio toward females. To test the prediction of sex-ratio biasing, relatedness asymmetries were experimentally manipulated in colonies of the primitively eusocial bee Augochlorella striata (Halictidae: Hymenoptera) by removing or not removing foundress queens. Queenright colonies (relatedness asymmetry present) produced a more female-biased sex ratio than did queenless colonies (relatedness asymmetry absent). Worker reproduction and unmated replacement queens can be discounted as alternative explanations. Workers therefore facultatively adjusted their colony's sex ratio and, in the presence of a relatedness asymmetry, biased the investment sex ratio toward their more closely related sisters and away from their more distantly related brothers.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Mueller, U G -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1991 Oct 18;254(5030):442-4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17742231" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 1994-12-09
    Description: The evolutionary history of the symbiosis between fungus-growing ants (Attini) and their fungi was elucidated by comparing phylogenies of both symbionts. The fungal phylogeny based on cladistic analyses of nuclear 28S ribosomal DNA indicates that, in contrast with the monophyly of the ants, the attine fungi are polyphyletic. Most cultivated fungi belong to the basidiomycete family Lepiotaceae; however, one ant genus, Apterostigma, has acquired a distantly related basidiomycete lineage. Phylogenetic patterns suggest that some primitive attines may have repeatedly acquired lepiotaceous symbionts. In contrast, the most derived attines have clonally propagated the same fungal lineage for at least 23 million years.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Chapela, I H -- Rehner, S A -- Schultz, T R -- Mueller, U G -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1994 Dec 9;266(5191):1691-4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17775630" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-12-29
    Description: The Genome Database for Rosaceae (GDR, http:/www.rosaceae.org ), the long-standing central repository and data mining resource for Rosaceae research, has been enhanced with new genomic, genetic and breeding data, and improved functionality. Whole genome sequences of apple, peach and strawberry are available to browse or download with a range of annotations, including gene model predictions, aligned transcripts, repetitive elements, polymorphisms, mapped genetic markers, mapped NCBI Rosaceae genes, gene homologs and association of InterPro protein domains, GO terms and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway terms. Annotated sequences can be queried using search interfaces and visualized using GBrowse. New expressed sequence tag unigene sets are available for major genera, and Pathway data are available through FragariaCyc, AppleCyc and PeachCyc databases. Synteny among the three sequenced genomes can be viewed using GBrowse_Syn. New markers, genetic maps and extensively curated qualitative/Mendelian and quantitative trait loci are available. Phenotype and genotype data from breeding projects and genetic diversity projects are also included. Improved search pages are available for marker, trait locus, genetic diversity and publication data. New search tools for breeders enable selection comparison and assistance with breeding decision making.
    Print ISSN: 0305-1048
    Electronic ISSN: 1362-4962
    Topics: Biology
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2014-05-01
    Description: HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT), a critical enzyme of the HIV life cycle and an important drug target, undergoes complex and largely uncharacterized conformational rearrangements that underlie its asymmetric folding, dimerization and subunit-selective ribonuclease H domain (RH) proteolysis. In the present article we have used a combination of NMR spectroscopy, small angle X-ray scattering and X-ray crystallography to characterize the p51 and p66 monomers and the conformational maturation of the p66/p66' homodimer. The p66 monomer exists as a loosely structured molecule in which the fingers/palm/connection, thumb and RH substructures are connected by flexible (disordered) linking segments. The initially observed homodimer is asymmetric and includes two fully folded RH domains, while exhibiting other conformational features similar to that of the RT heterodimer. The RH' domain of the p66' subunit undergoes selective unfolding with time constant ~6.5 h, consistent with destabilization due to residue transfer to the polymerase' domain on the p66' subunit. A simultaneous increase in the intensity of resonances near the random coil positions is characterized by a similar time constant. Consistent with the residue transfer hypothesis, a construct of the isolated RH domain lacking the two N-terminal residues is shown to exhibit reduced stability. These results demonstrate that RH' unfolding is coupled to homodimer formation.
    Print ISSN: 0305-1048
    Electronic ISSN: 1362-4962
    Topics: Biology
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2012-04-15
    Description: Binding of the catalytic divalent ion to the ternary DNA polymerase β/gapped DNA/dNTP complex is thought to represent the final step in the assembly of the catalytic complex and is consequently a critical determinant of replicative fidelity. We have analyzed the effects of Mg 2+ and Zn 2+ on the conformational activation process based on NMR measurements of [methyl- 13 C]methionine DNA polymerase β. Unexpectedly, both divalent metals were able to produce a template base-dependent conformational activation of the polymerase/1-nt gapped DNA complex in the absence of a complementary incoming nucleotide, albeit with different temperature thresholds. This conformational activation is abolished by substituting Glu295 with lysine, thereby interrupting key hydrogen bonds necessary to stabilize the closed conformation. These and other results indicate that metal-binding can promote: translocation of the primer terminus base pair into the active site; expulsion of an unpaired pyrimidine, but not purine, base from the template-binding pocket; and motions of polymerase subdomains that close the active site. We also have performed pyrophosphorolysis studies that are consistent with predictions based on these results. These findings provide new insight into the relationships between conformational activation, enzyme activity and polymerase fidelity.
    Print ISSN: 0305-1048
    Electronic ISSN: 1362-4962
    Topics: Biology
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2012-11-04
    Description: HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) contains a C-terminal ribonuclease H (RH) domain on its p66 subunit that can be expressed as a stable, although inactive protein. Recent studies of several RH enzymes demonstrate that substrate binding plays a major role in the creation of the active site. In the absence of substrate, the C-terminal helix E of the RT RNase H domain is dynamic, characterized by severe exchange broadening of its backbone amide resonances, so that the solution characterization of this region of the protein has been limited. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of 13 C-labeled RH as a function of experimental conditions reveal that the 1 methyl resonance of Ile556, located in a short, random coil segment following helix E, experiences a large 13 C shift corresponding to a conformational change of Ile556 that results from packing of helix E against the central β-sheet. This shift provides a useful basis for monitoring the effects of various ligands on active site formation. Additionally, we report that the RNase H complexes formed with one or both divalent ions can be individually observed and characterized using diamagnetic Zn 2+ as a substitute for Mg 2+ . Ordering of helix E results specifically from the interaction with the lower affinity binding to the A divalent ion site.
    Print ISSN: 0305-1048
    Electronic ISSN: 1362-4962
    Topics: Biology
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-12-12
    Description: The major allergen domain (MA) is widely distributed in insects. The crystal structure of a single Bla g 1 MA revealed a novel protein fold in which the fundamental structure was a duplex of two subsequences (monomers), which had diverged over time. This suggested that the evolutionary origin of the MA structure may have been a homodimer of this smaller subsequence. Using publicly available genomic data, the distribution of the basic unit of this class of proteins was determined to better understand its evolutionary history. The duplication and divergence is examined at three distinct levels of resolution: 1) within the orders Diptera and Hymenoptera, 2) within one genus Drosophila , and 3) within one species Aedes aegypti . Within the family Culicidae, we have found two separate occurrences of monomers as independent genes. The organization of the gene family in A. aegypti shows a common evolutionary origin for its monomer and several closely related MAs. Molecular modeling of the A. aegypti monomer with the unique Bla g 1 fold confirms the distant evolutionary relationship and supports the feasibility of homodimer formation from a single monomer. RNAseq data for A. aegypti confirms that the monomer is expressed in the mosquito similar to other A. aegypti MAs after a blood meal. Together, these data support the contention that the detected monomer shares similar functional characteristics to related MAs in other insects. An extensive search for this domain outside of Insecta confirms that the MAs are restricted to insects.
    Electronic ISSN: 1759-6653
    Topics: Biology
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2017-09-30
    Description: Topoisomerase 2 (TOP2) DNA transactions proceed via formation of the TOP2 cleavage complex (TOP2cc), a covalent enzyme-DNA reaction intermediate that is vulnerable to trapping by potent anticancer TOP2 drugs. How genotoxic TOP2 DNA-protein cross-links are resolved is unclear. We found that the SUMO (small ubiquitin-related modifier) ligase ZATT (ZNF451) is a multifunctional DNA repair factor that controls cellular responses to TOP2 damage. ZATT binding to TOP2cc facilitates a proteasome-independent tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 2 (TDP2) hydrolase activity on stalled TOP2cc. The ZATT SUMO ligase activity further promotes TDP2 interactions with SUMOylated TOP2, regulating efficient TDP2 recruitment through a "split-SIM" SUMO2 engagement platform. These findings uncover a ZATT-TDP2–catalyzed and SUMO2-modulated pathway for direct resolution of TOP2cc.
    Keywords: Molecular Biology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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