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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-03-07
    Description: Assays to accurately estimate relative fitness of bacteria growing in multistrain communities can advance our understanding of how selection shapes diversity within a lineage. Here, we present a variant of the “evolve and resequence” approach both to estimate relative fitness and to identify genetic variants responsible for fitness variation of...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2009-04-18
    Description: Oxygen deprivation is rapidly deleterious for most organisms. However, Caenorhabditis elegans has developed the ability to survive anoxia for at least 48 hours. Mutations in the DAF-2/DAF-16 insulin-like signaling pathway promote such survival. We describe a pathway involving the HYL-2 ceramide synthase that acts independently of DAF-2. Loss of the ceramide synthase gene hyl-2 results in increased sensitivity of C. elegans to anoxia. C. elegans has two ceramide synthases, hyl-1 and hyl-2, that participate in ceramide biogenesis and affect its ability to survive anoxic conditions. In contrast to hyl-2(lf) mutants, hyl-1(lf) mutants are more resistant to anoxia than normal animals. HYL-1 and HYL-2 have complementary specificities for fatty acyl chains. These data indicate that specific ceramides produced by HYL-2 confer resistance to anoxia.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Menuz, Vincent -- Howell, Kate S -- Gentina, Sebastien -- Epstein, Sharon -- Riezman, Isabelle -- Fornallaz-Mulhauser, Monique -- Hengartner, Michael O -- Gomez, Marie -- Riezman, Howard -- Martinou, Jean-Claude -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Apr 17;324(5925):381-4. doi: 10.1126/science.1168532.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Cell Biology, University of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19372430" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Apoptosis ; Caenorhabditis elegans/cytology/genetics/*physiology ; Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins/*genetics/*metabolism ; *Cell Hypoxia ; Ceramides/biosynthesis/*physiology ; Gene Deletion ; Genes, Helminth ; Mutation ; Oxidoreductases/*genetics/*metabolism ; Oxygen/*physiology ; Receptor, Insulin/genetics/metabolism ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics/growth & development/physiology ; Sphingomyelins/biosynthesis/physiology ; Substrate Specificity ; Transformation, Genetic ; Transgenes
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2009-09-26
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Balazs, Anna C -- Epstein, Irving R -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Sep 25;325(5948):1632-4. doi: 10.1126/science.1178323.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA. balazs@pitt.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19779180" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Biochemical Phenomena ; Cells ; *Chemical Phenomena ; DNA/chemistry ; *Evolution, Chemical ; Origin of Life ; Software
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-01-15
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Anderson, W A -- Banerjee, U -- Drennan, C L -- Elgin, S C R -- Epstein, I R -- Handelsman, J -- Hatfull, G F -- Losick, R -- O'Dowd, D K -- Olivera, B M -- Strobel, S A -- Walker, G C -- Warner, I M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Jan 14;331(6014):152-3. doi: 10.1126/science.1198280.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Howard University, Washington, DC 20059, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21233371" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Academies and Institutes ; *Faculty ; Interdisciplinary Communication ; *Research ; Research Support as Topic ; Science/*education ; *Teaching ; *Universities
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-11-15
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Anderson, Winston A -- Amasino, Richard M -- Ares, Manuel Jr -- Banerjee, Utpal -- Bartel, Bonnie -- Corces, Victor G -- Drennan, Catherine L -- Elgin, Sarah C R -- Epstein, Irving R -- Fanning, Ellen -- Guillette, Louis J Jr -- Handelsman, Jo -- Hatfull, Graham F -- Hoy, Ronald Raymond -- Kelley, Darcy -- Leinwand, Leslie A -- Losick, Richard -- Lu, Yi -- Lynn, David G -- Neuhauser, Claudia -- O'Dowd, Diane K -- Olivera, Toto -- Pevzner, Pavel -- Richards-Kortum, Rebecca R -- Rine, Jasper -- Sah, Robert L -- Strobel, Scott A -- Walker, Graham C -- Walt, David R -- Warner, Isiah M -- Wessler, Sue -- Willard, Huntington F -- Zare, Richard N -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Nov 11;334(6057):760-1. doi: 10.1126/science.334.6057.760-b.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22076362" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Curriculum ; *Education, Premedical ; *Educational Status ; *School Admission Criteria ; *Schools, Medical ; Universities
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1992-05-18
    Description: Blisters following minor trauma characterize epidermolysis bullosa, a group of hereditary diseases of the skin. In the simplex type, epidermal basal cells are fragile, and mutations of genes encoding keratin intermediate filament proteins underlie that fragility. In the dystrophic types, the causative mutation appears to be in the gene encoding type VII collagen, which is the major component of anchoring fibrils. These recent findings afford solid evidence that at least one function of the cytoskeletal intermediate filament network is the provision of mechanical stability and that anchoring fibrils indeed do anchor the epidermis to the underlying dermis.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Epstein, E H Jr -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1992 May 8;256(5058):799-804.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco General Hospital 94110.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1375393" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Chromosomes, Human, Pair 12 ; Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17 ; Cytoskeleton/ultrastructure ; Epidermolysis Bullosa/*genetics/pathology ; Humans ; Keratins/*genetics ; Multigene Family ; Skin/pathology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 1999-09-25
    Description: Mass mortalities due to disease outbreaks have recently affected major taxa in the oceans. For closely monitored groups like corals and marine mammals, reports of the frequency of epidemics and the number of new diseases have increased recently. A dramatic global increase in the severity of coral bleaching in 1997-98 is coincident with high El Nino temperatures. Such climate-mediated, physiological stresses may compromise host resistance and increase frequency of opportunistic diseases. Where documented, new diseases typically have emerged through host or range shifts of known pathogens. Both climate and human activities may have also accelerated global transport of species, bringing together pathogens and previously unexposed host populations.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Harvell, C D -- Kim, K -- Burkholder, J M -- Colwell, R R -- Epstein, P R -- Grimes, D J -- Hofmann, E E -- Lipp, E K -- Osterhaus, A D -- Overstreet, R M -- Porter, J W -- Smith, G W -- Vasta, G R -- 1PO1 ES09563/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Sep 3;285(5433):1505-10.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10498537" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Aquaculture ; *Climate ; Cnidaria ; *Disease Outbreaks/*veterinary ; Humans ; Infection/epidemiology/*etiology/transmission/*veterinary ; *Marine Biology ; Oceans and Seas ; Water Pollution
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2002-05-11
    Description: The majority (〉99%) of microorganisms from the environment resist cultivation in the laboratory. Ribosomal RNA analysis suggests that uncultivated organisms are found in nearly every prokaryotic group, and several divisions have no known cultivable representatives. We designed a diffusion chamber that allowed the growth of previously uncultivated microorganisms in a simulated natural environment. Colonies of representative marine organisms were isolated in pure culture. These isolates did not grow on artificial media alone but formed colonies in the presence of other microorganisms. This observation may help explain the nature of microbial uncultivability.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kaeberlein, T -- Lewis, K -- Epstein, S S -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2002 May 10;296(5570):1127-9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Biology Department, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12004133" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Bacteria/classification/cytology/*growth & development/*isolation & purification ; *Bacteriological Techniques ; Colony Count, Microbial ; Culture Media ; DNA, Bacterial/analysis/genetics ; DNA, Ribosomal/analysis/genetics ; Diffusion Chambers, Culture ; Geologic Sediments/*microbiology ; Molecular Sequence Data ; RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics ; *Seawater ; Silicon Dioxide
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2005-10-01
    Description: Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) emerged in 2002 to 2003 in southern China. The origin of its etiological agent, the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV), remains elusive. Here we report that species of bats are a natural host of coronaviruses closely related to those responsible for the SARS outbreak. These viruses, termed SARS-like coronaviruses (SL-CoVs), display greater genetic variation than SARS-CoV isolated from humans or from civets. The human and civet isolates of SARS-CoV nestle phylogenetically within the spectrum of SL-CoVs, indicating that the virus responsible for the SARS outbreak was a member of this coronavirus group.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Li, Wendong -- Shi, Zhengli -- Yu, Meng -- Ren, Wuze -- Smith, Craig -- Epstein, Jonathan H -- Wang, Hanzhong -- Crameri, Gary -- Hu, Zhihong -- Zhang, Huajun -- Zhang, Jianhong -- McEachern, Jennifer -- Field, Hume -- Daszak, Peter -- Eaton, Bryan T -- Zhang, Shuyi -- Wang, Lin-Fa -- R01-TW05869/TW/FIC NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2005 Oct 28;310(5748):676-9. Epub 2005 Sep 29.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16195424" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Cercopithecus aethiops ; China/epidemiology ; Chiroptera/*virology ; Communicable Diseases, Emerging ; *Coronavirus/classification ; Disease Outbreaks ; *Disease Reservoirs ; Genetic Variation ; Genome, Viral ; Henipavirus/classification ; Humans ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mutation ; Phylogeny ; Polymerase Chain Reaction ; *SARS Virus/classification ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology/transmission/virology ; Vero Cells ; Viverridae/virology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2005-03-19
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Yuspa, Stuart H -- Epstein, Ervin H Jr -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2005 Mar 18;307(5716):1727-8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Laboratory of Cellular Carcinogenesis and Tumor Promotion, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. sy12j@nih.gov〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15774745" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/etiology/genetics/pathology/*physiopathology ; Cell Adhesion Molecules/metabolism ; Cell Transformation, Neoplastic ; Collagen Type VII/chemistry/*genetics/*physiology ; Disease Susceptibility ; Epidermolysis Bullosa Dystrophica/complications/*genetics/metabolism/pathology ; Genes, ras ; Humans ; I-kappa B Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Keratinocytes/*metabolism/pathology ; Mice ; Mutation ; Neoplasm Invasiveness ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Skin Neoplasms/etiology/genetics/pathology/*physiopathology ; Transduction, Genetic ; Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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