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  • American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)  (9)
  • American Institute of Physics (AIP)  (3)
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2015-11-07
    Description: Planetary auroras reveal the complex interplay between an atmosphere and the surrounding plasma environment. We report the discovery of low-altitude, diffuse auroras spanning much of Mars' northern hemisphere, coincident with a solar energetic particle outburst. The Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph, a remote sensing instrument on the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) spacecraft, detected auroral emission in virtually all nightside observations for ~5 days, spanning nearly all geographic longitudes. Emission extended down to ~60 kilometer (km) altitude (1 microbar), deeper than confirmed at any other planet. Solar energetic particles were observed up to 200 kilo--electron volts; these particles are capable of penetrating down to the 60 km altitude. Given minimal magnetic fields over most of the planet, Mars is likely to exhibit auroras more globally than Earth.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Schneider, N M -- Deighan, J I -- Jain, S K -- Stiepen, A -- Stewart, A I F -- Larson, D -- Mitchell, D L -- Mazelle, C -- Lee, C O -- Lillis, R J -- Evans, J S -- Brain, D -- Stevens, M H -- McClintock, W E -- Chaffin, M S -- Crismani, M -- Holsclaw, G M -- Lefevre, F -- Lo, D Y -- Clarke, J T -- Montmessin, F -- Jakosky, B M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Nov 6;350(6261):aad0313. doi: 10.1126/science.aad0313.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Boulder, CO 80303, USA. nick.schneider@lasp.colorado.edu. ; Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Boulder, CO 80303, USA. ; Space Sciences Lab, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. ; Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie (IRAP), CNRS, Toulouse, France. University Paul Sabatier, IRAP, CNRS, Toulouse, France. ; Computational Physics, Inc, Springfield, VA 22151, USA. ; Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375, USA. ; Laboratoire Atmospheres, Milieux, Observations Spatiales, Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, Guyancourt, France. ; Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA. ; Center for Space Physics, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26542577" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2015-11-07
    Description: Coupling between the lower and upper atmosphere, combined with loss of gas from the upper atmosphere to space, likely contributed to the thin, cold, dry atmosphere of modern Mars. To help understand ongoing ion loss to space, the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) spacecraft made comprehensive measurements of the Mars upper atmosphere, ionosphere, and interactions with the Sun and solar wind during an interplanetary coronal mass ejection impact in March 2015. Responses include changes in the bow shock and magnetosheath, formation of widespread diffuse aurora, and enhancement of pick-up ions. Observations and models both show an enhancement in escape rate of ions to space during the event. Ion loss during solar events early in Mars history may have been a major contributor to the long-term evolution of the Mars atmosphere.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Jakosky, B M -- Grebowsky, J M -- Luhmann, J G -- Connerney, J -- Eparvier, F -- Ergun, R -- Halekas, J -- Larson, D -- Mahaffy, P -- McFadden, J -- Mitchell, D F -- Schneider, N -- Zurek, R -- Bougher, S -- Brain, D -- Ma, Y J -- Mazelle, C -- Andersson, L -- Andrews, D -- Baird, D -- Baker, D -- Bell, J M -- Benna, M -- Chaffin, M -- Chamberlin, P -- Chaufray, Y-Y -- Clarke, J -- Collinson, G -- Combi, M -- Crary, F -- Cravens, T -- Crismani, M -- Curry, S -- Curtis, D -- Deighan, J -- Delory, G -- Dewey, R -- DiBraccio, G -- Dong, C -- Dong, Y -- Dunn, P -- Elrod, M -- England, S -- Eriksson, A -- Espley, J -- Evans, S -- Fang, X -- Fillingim, M -- Fortier, K -- Fowler, C M -- Fox, J -- Groller, H -- Guzewich, S -- Hara, T -- Harada, Y -- Holsclaw, G -- Jain, S K -- Jolitz, R -- Leblanc, F -- Lee, C O -- Lee, Y -- Lefevre, F -- Lillis, R -- Livi, R -- Lo, D -- Mayyasi, M -- McClintock, W -- McEnulty, T -- Modolo, R -- Montmessin, F -- Morooka, M -- Nagy, A -- Olsen, K -- Peterson, W -- Rahmati, A -- Ruhunusiri, S -- Russell, C T -- Sakai, S -- Sauvaud, J-A -- Seki, K -- Steckiewicz, M -- Stevens, M -- Stewart, A I F -- Stiepen, A -- Stone, S -- Tenishev, V -- Thiemann, E -- Tolson, R -- Toublanc, D -- Vogt, M -- Weber, T -- Withers, P -- Woods, T -- Yelle, R -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Nov 6;350(6261):aad0210. doi: 10.1126/science.aad0210.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA. bruce.jakosky@lasp.colorado.edu. ; NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA. ; University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA. ; University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA. ; University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA. ; Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA. ; University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. ; University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA. ; CNRS-Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie (IRAP), Toulouse, France. University Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, France. ; Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala, Sweden. ; NASA/Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, USA. ; National Institute of Aerospace, Hampton, VA, USA. ; Laboratoire atmospheres, milieux et observations spatiales (LATMOS)-CNRS, Paris, France. ; Boston University, Boston, MA, USA. ; University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, USA. ; Computational Physics, Inc., Boulder, CO, USA. ; Wright State University, Dayton, OH, USA. ; University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA. ; Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan. ; Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, USA. ; North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26542576" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1978-07-21
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Jain, S K -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1978 Jul 21;201(4352):246-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17778652" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2015-11-07
    Description: The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) mission, during the second of its Deep Dip campaigns, made comprehensive measurements of martian thermosphere and ionosphere composition, structure, and variability at altitudes down to ~130 kilometers in the subsolar region. This altitude range contains the diffusively separated upper atmosphere just above the well-mixed atmosphere, the layer of peak extreme ultraviolet heating and primary reservoir for atmospheric escape. In situ measurements of the upper atmosphere reveal previously unmeasured populations of neutral and charged particles, the homopause altitude at approximately 130 kilometers, and an unexpected level of variability both on an orbit-to-orbit basis and within individual orbits. These observations help constrain volatile escape processes controlled by thermosphere and ionosphere structure and variability.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bougher, S -- Jakosky, B -- Halekas, J -- Grebowsky, J -- Luhmann, J -- Mahaffy, P -- Connerney, J -- Eparvier, F -- Ergun, R -- Larson, D -- McFadden, J -- Mitchell, D -- Schneider, N -- Zurek, R -- Mazelle, C -- Andersson, L -- Andrews, D -- Baird, D -- Baker, D N -- Bell, J M -- Benna, M -- Brain, D -- Chaffin, M -- Chamberlin, P -- Chaufray, J-Y -- Clarke, J -- Collinson, G -- Combi, M -- Crary, F -- Cravens, T -- Crismani, M -- Curry, S -- Curtis, D -- Deighan, J -- Delory, G -- Dewey, R -- DiBraccio, G -- Dong, C -- Dong, Y -- Dunn, P -- Elrod, M -- England, S -- Eriksson, A -- Espley, J -- Evans, S -- Fang, X -- Fillingim, M -- Fortier, K -- Fowler, C M -- Fox, J -- Groller, H -- Guzewich, S -- Hara, T -- Harada, Y -- Holsclaw, G -- Jain, S K -- Jolitz, R -- Leblanc, F -- Lee, C O -- Lee, Y -- Lefevre, F -- Lillis, R -- Livi, R -- Lo, D -- Ma, Y -- Mayyasi, M -- McClintock, W -- McEnulty, T -- Modolo, R -- Montmessin, F -- Morooka, M -- Nagy, A -- Olsen, K -- Peterson, W -- Rahmati, A -- Ruhunusiri, S -- Russell, C T -- Sakai, S -- Sauvaud, J-A -- Seki, K -- Steckiewicz, M -- Stevens, M -- Stewart, A I F -- Stiepen, A -- Stone, S -- Tenishev, V -- Thiemann, E -- Tolson, R -- Toublanc, D -- Vogt, M -- Weber, T -- Withers, P -- Woods, T -- Yelle, R -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Nov 6;350(6261):aad0459. doi: 10.1126/science.aad0459.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉CLaSP Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. bougher@umich.edu. ; Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University. of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA. ; Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA. ; NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA. ; Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA. ; Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA. ; CNRS/Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, Toulouse, France. University Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, France. ; Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden. ; NASA/Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, USA. ; National Institute of Aerospace, Hampton, VA, USA. ; Laboratoire Atmospheres, Milieux, Observations Spatiales /CNRS, Verrieres-le-Buisson, France. ; Department of Astronomy, Boston University, Boston, MA, USA. ; CLaSP Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. ; Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, USA. ; Computational Physics, Springfield, VA, USA. ; Department of Physics, Wright State University, Fairborn, OH, USA. ; Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA. ; Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA. ; Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan. ; Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26542579" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: A compact coaxial electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma source is built for plasma deposition experiments. The ECR plasma is produced in a coaxial line configuration and hence the source is compact. The plasma parameters (plasma density and electron temperature) are measured using a Langmuir probe. The plasma parameters are mainly dependent on the center conductor (stub) dimensions of the coaxial line. The characterization of plasma for both conical and cylindrical stubs is carried out and it is found that the conical stub produces relatively denser and more stable plasma than the cylindrical stub. The typical plasma density and electron temperature are 3×1010 cm−3 and 5 eV, respectively, for argon plasma. © 1996 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: In this ECR ion source, the possibility of maintaining the plasma by slow wave structures (SWS), helical coil, and slotted line antennas, in the region where wce, wpe (very-much-greater-than) wrf (wce, wpe, and wrf are electron cyclotron, plasma, and microwave frequencies, respectively) is exploited. The plasma parameters, plasma density, and electron temperature are maximized by coupling microwave (frequency: 2.45 GHz; power: 650 W) at two places in a magnetic mirror machine (mirror ratio Rm (approximately-equal-to) 1.45) to obtain higher beam current. Initially, the plasma is produced by coupling microwave to SWS at the mirror throat. The microwave is coupled by exciting the dominant slow wave field component of SWS, using an E-plane horn antenna. Then the plasma is brought to the region wce, wpe (very-much-greater-than) wrf at the mirror throat by increasing the magnetic field. Simultaneously, the ECR region is shifted from mirror throat to the center where second microwave coupling is done at the resonant region using another horn antenna. The characterization of plasma parameters are presented for both helical coil and slotted line antennas. Enhancement of plasma parameters are observed in the present scheme. Also, the SLA is found to produce better plasmas (ne ∼ 7 × 1012 cm−3 and Te ∼ 12 eV) than the helical coil and hence the SLA is chosen for the ion beam characterization. The extracted ion beam current density in the present scheme is ∼25 mA/cm2 at 2-kV extraction voltage.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: This paper describes a new method of exciting slow wave structures (SWS) for obtaining high-density electron cyclotron resonance plasmas. The electric field component corresponding to the slow wave mode (SWM) of SWS is excited by an E-plane horn antenna. The special features of the microwave transmission line are the stable tuning for a given antenna and no requirement for water cooling on any of the components. Two types of SWS, a helical coil and a slotted line antenna, are studied, and the experiments are carried out in nitrogen and argon. The plasma producing capability is examined for these systems in the region wce,wpe(approximately-greater-than)wrf, where wce, wpe, and wrf correspond to electron cyclotron, plasma, and microwave frequencies, respectively. A high-density, large-diameter plasma (n0∼5×1011 cm−3; diameter ∼8.0 cm) could be obtained and the plasma could be maintained in the region 1≤wce/wrf≤2.
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 1969-12-05
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1978-07-21
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2015-11-05
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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