ALBERT

All Library Books, journals and Electronic Records Telegrafenberg

feed icon rss

Your email was sent successfully. Check your inbox.

An error occurred while sending the email. Please try again.

Proceed reservation?

Export
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-01-19
    Description: The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) on board the Canadian SCISAT-1 satellite (launched in August 2003) measures over 30 different atmospheric species, including six nitrogen trace gases that are needed to quantify the stratospheric NOy budget. We combine volume mixing ratio (VMR) profiles for NO, NO2, HNO3, N2O5, ClONO2, and HNO4 to determine a zonally averaged NOy climatology on monthly and 3 month combined means (December–February, March–May, June–August, and September–November) at 5° latitude spacing and on 33 pressure surfaces. Peak NOy VMR concentrations (15–20 ppbv) are situated at about 3 hPa (∼40 km) in the tropics, while they are typically lower at about 10 hPa (∼30 km) in the midlatitudes. Mean NOy VMRs are similar in both the northern and southern polar regions, with the exception of large enhancements periodically observed in the upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere. These are primarily due to enhancements of NO due to energetic particle precipitation and downward transport. Other features in the NOy budget are related to descent in the polar vortex, heterogeneous chemistry, and denitrification processes. Comparison of the ACE-FTS NOy budget is made to both the Odin and ATMOS NOy data sets, showing in both cases a good level of agreement, such that relative differences are typically better than 20%. The NOy climatological products are available through the ACE website and are a supplement to the paper. - A middle-atmosphere NOy climatology has been produced using ACE-FTS measurements; - A robust method for quality controlling the input data has been developed - Good agreement is found between ACE-FTS NOy climatology and other climatologies
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 2
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    AGU / Wiley
    In:  Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 115 (D20). D20304.
    Publication Date: 2018-01-16
    Description: In order to validate the reported precision of space-based atmospheric composition measurements, validation studies often focus on measurements in the tropical stratosphere, where natural variability is weak. The scatter in tropical measurements can then be used as an upper limit on single-profile measurement precision. Here we introduce a method of quantifying the scatter of tropical measurements which aims to minimize the effects of short-term atmospheric variability while maintaining large enough sample sizes that the results can be taken as representative of the full data set. We apply this technique to measurements of O(3), HNO(3), CO, H(2)O, NO, NO(2), N(2)O, CH(4), CCl(2)F(2), and CCl(3)F produced by the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS). Tropical scatter in the ACE-FTS retrievals is found to be consistent with the reported random errors (RREs) for H(2)O and CO at altitudes above 20 km, validating the RREs for these measurements. Tropical scatter in measurements of NO, NO(2), CCl(2)F(2), and CCl(3)F is roughly consistent with the RREs as long as the effect of outliers in the data set is reduced through the use of robust statistics. The scatter in measurements of O(3), HNO(3), CH(4), and N(2)O in the stratosphere, while larger than the RREs, is shown to be consistent with the variability simulated in the Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model. This result implies that, for these species, stratospheric measurement scatter is dominated by natural variability, not random error, which provides added confidence in the scientific value of single-profile measurements.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Format: text
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-01-19
    Description: The goal of the Chemistry-Climate Model Validation (CCMVal) activity is to improve understanding of chemistry-climate models (CCMs) through process-oriented evaluation and to provide reliable projections of stratospheric ozone and its impact on climate. An appreciation of the details of model formulations is essential for understanding how models respond to the changing external forcings of greenhouse gases and ozone-depleting substances, and hence for understanding the ozone and climate forecasts produced by the models participating in this activity. Here we introduce and review the models used for the second round (CCMVal-2) of this intercomparison, regarding the implementation of chemical, transport, radiative, and dynamical processes in these models. In particular, we review the advantages and problems associated with approaches used to model processes of relevance to stratospheric dynamics and chemistry. Furthermore, we state the definitions of the reference simulations performed, and describe the forcing data used in these simulations. We identify some developments in chemistry-climate modeling that make models more physically based or more comprehensive, including the introduction of an interactive ocean, online photolysis, troposphere-stratosphere chemistry, and non-orographic gravity-wave deposition as linked to tropospheric convection. The relatively new developments indicate that stratospheric CCM modeling is becoming more consistent with our physically based understanding of the atmosphere.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-02-06
    Description: We present the first comprehensive intercomparison of currently available satellite ozone climatologies in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS) (300-70hPa) as part of the Stratosphere-troposphere Processes and their Role in Climate (SPARC) Data Initiative. The Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) instrument is the only nadir-viewing instrument in this initiative, as well as the only instrument with a focus on tropospheric composition. We apply the TES observational operator to ozone climatologies from the more highly vertically resolved limb-viewing instruments. This minimizes the impact of differences in vertical resolution among the instruments and allows identification of systematic differences in the large-scale structure and variability of UTLS ozone. We find that the climatologies from most of the limb-viewing instruments show positive differences (ranging from 5 to 75%) with respect to TES in the tropical UTLS, and comparison to a zonal mean ozonesonde climatology indicates that these differences likely represent a positive bias for p100hPa. In the extratropics, there is good agreement among the climatologies regarding the timing and magnitude of the ozone seasonal cycle (differences in the peak-to-peak amplitude of 〈15%) when the TES observational operator is applied, as well as very consistent midlatitude interannual variability. The discrepancies in ozone temporal variability are larger in the tropics, with differences between the data sets of up to 55% in the seasonal cycle amplitude. However, the differences among the climatologies are everywhere much smaller than the range produced by current chemistry-climate models, indicating that the multiple-instrument ensemble is useful for quantitatively evaluating these models.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 5
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    AGU / Wiley
    In:  Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 118 (10). pp. 4788-4800.
    Publication Date: 2018-02-06
    Description: Reconstructions of the atmospheric sulfate aerosol burdens resulting from past volcanic eruptions are based on ice core-derived estimates of volcanic sulfate deposition and the assumption that the two quantities are directly proportional. We test this assumption within simulations of tropical volcanic stratospheric sulfur injections with the MAECHAM5-HAM aerosol-climate model. An ensemble of 70 simulations is analyzed, with SO2 injections ranging from 8.5 to 700 Tg, with eruptions in January and July. Modeled sulfate deposition flux to Antarctica shows excellent spatial correlation with ice core-derived estimates for Pinatubo and Tambora, although the comparison suggests the modeled flux to the ice sheets is 4–5 times too large. We find that Greenland and Antarctic deposition efficiencies (the ratio of sulfate flux to each ice sheet to the maximum hemispheric stratospheric sulfate aerosol burden) vary as a function of the magnitude and season of stratospheric sulfur injection. Changes in simulated sulfate deposition for large SO2 injections are connected to increases in aerosol particle size, which impact aerosol sedimentation velocity and radiative properties, the latter leading to strong dynamical changes including strengthening of the winter polar vortices, which inhibits the transport of stratospheric aerosols to high latitudes. The resulting relationship between Antarctic and Greenland volcanic sulfate deposition is nonlinear for very large eruptions, with significantly less sulfate deposition to Antarctica than to Greenland. These model results suggest that variability of deposition efficiency may be an important consideration in the interpretation of ice core sulfate signals for eruptions of Tambora-magnitude and larger.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-04-04
    Description: The current generation of Earth system models that participate in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) does not, on average, produce a strengthened Northern Hemisphere (NH) polar vortex after large tropical volcanic eruptions as suggested by observational records. Here we investigate the impact of volcanic eruptions on the NH winter stratosphere with an ensemble of 20 model simulations of the Max Planck Institute Earth system model. We compare the dynamical impact in simulations of the very large 1815 Tambora eruption with the averaged dynamical response to the two largest eruptions of the CMIP5 historical simulations (the 1883 Krakatau and the 1991 Pinatubo eruptions). We find that for both the Tambora and the averaged Krakatau-Pinatubo eruptions the radiative perturbation only weakly affects the polar vortex directly. The position of the maximum temperature anomaly gradient is located at approximately 30°N, where we obtain significant westerly zonal wind anomalies between 10hPa and 30hPa. Under the very strong forcing of the Tambora eruption, the NH polar vortex is significantly strengthened because the subtropical westerly wind anomalies are sufficiently strong to robustly alter the propagation of planetary waves. The average response to the eruptions of Krakatau and Pinatubo reveals a slight strengthening of the polar vortex, but individual ensemble members differ substantially, indicating that internal variability plays a dominant role. For the Tambora eruption the ensemble variability of the zonal mean temperature and zonal wind anomalies during midwinter and late winter is significantly reduced compared to the volcanically unperturbed period.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-02-06
    Description: We describe the main differences in simulations of stratospheric climate and variability by models within the fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) that have a model top above the stratopause and relatively fine stratospheric vertical resolution (high-top), and those that have a model top below the stratopause (low-top). Although the simulation of mean stratospheric climate by the two model ensembles is similar, the low-top model ensemble has very weak stratospheric variability on daily and interannual time scales. The frequency of major sudden stratospheric warming events is strongly underestimated by the low-top models with less than half the frequency of events observed in the reanalysis data and high-top models. The lack of stratospheric variability in the low-top models affects their stratosphere-troposphere coupling, resulting in short-lived anomalies in the Northern Annular Mode, which do not produce long-lasting tropospheric impacts, as seen in observations. The lack of stratospheric variability, however, does not appear to have any impact on the ability of the low-top models to reproduce past stratospheric temperature trends. We find little improvement in the simulation of decadal variability for the high-top models compared to the low-top, which is likely related to the fact that neither ensemble produces a realistic dynamical response to volcanic eruptions
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-02-06
    Description: Monthly zonal mean climatologies of atmospheric measurements from satellite instruments can have biases due to the non-uniform sampling of the atmosphere by the instruments. We characterize potential sampling biases in stratospheric trace gas climatologies of the Stratospheric Processes and their Role in Climate (SPARC) Data Initiative using chemical fields from a chemistry climate model simulation and sampling patterns from 16 satellite-borne instruments. The exercise is performed for the long-lived stratospheric trace gases O3 and H2O. Monthly sample biases for O3 exceed 10% for many instruments in the high latitude stratosphere and in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere, while annual mean sampling biases reach values of up to 20% in the same regions for some instruments. Sampling biases for H2O are generally smaller than for O3, although still notable in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere and Southern Hemisphere high latitudes. The most important mechanism leading to monthly sampling bias is the non-uniform temporal sampling of many instruments, i.e., the fact that for many instruments, monthly means are produced from measurements which span less than the full month in question. Similarly, annual mean sampling biases are well explained by non-uniformity in the month-to-month sampling by different instruments. Non-uniform sampling in latitude and longitude are shown to also lead to non-negligible sampling biases, which are most relevant for climatologies which are otherwise free of sampling biases due to non-uniform temporal sampling.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-02-06
    Description: A comprehensive quality assessment of the ozone products from 18 limb-viewing satellite instruments is provided by means of a detailed inter-comparison. The ozone climatologies in the form of monthly zonal mean time series covering the upper troposphere to lower mesosphere are obtained from LIMS, SAGE I, SAGE II, UARS-MLS, HALOE, POAM II, POAM III, SMR, OSIRIS, SAGE III, MIPAS, GOMOS, SCIAMACHY, ACE-FTS, ACE-MAESTRO, Aura-MLS, HIRDLS, and SMILES within 1978-2010. The inter-comparisons focus on mean biases based on monthly and annual zonal mean fields, on inter-annual variability and on seasonal cycles. Additionally, the physical consistency of the data sets is tested through diagnostics of the quasi-biennial oscillation and the Antarctic ozone hole. The comprehensive evaluations reveal that the uncertainty in our knowledge of the atmospheric ozone mean state is smallest in the tropical middle stratosphere and in the midlatitude lower/middle stratosphere, where we find a 1σ multi-instrument spread of less than ±5%. While the overall agreement among the climatological data sets is very good for large parts of the stratosphere, individual discrepancies have been identified including unrealistic month-to-month fluctuations, large biases in particular atmospheric regions, or inconsistencies in the seasonal cycle. Notable differences between the data sets exist in the tropical lower stratosphere and at high latitudes, with a multi-instrument spread of ±30% at the tropical tropopause and ±15% at polar latitudes. In particular, large relative differences are identified in the Antarctic polar cap during the time of the ozone hole, with a spread between the monthly zonal mean fields of ±50%. Differences between the climatological data sets are suggested to be partially related to inter-instrumental differences in vertical resolution and geographical sampling. The evaluations as a whole provide guidance on what data sets are the most reliable for applications such as studies of ozone variability, model-measurement comparisons and detection of long-term trends. A detailed comparison versus SAGE II data is presented, which can help identify suitable candidates for long-term data merging studies.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: text
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-02-06
    Description: Within the SPARC Data Initiative, the first comprehensive assessment of the quality of 13 water vapor products from 11 limb-viewing satellite instruments (LIMS, SAGE II, UARS-MLS, HALOE, POAM III, SMR, SAGE III, MIPAS, SCIAMACHY, ACE-FTS, and Aura-MLS) obtained within the time period 1978-2010 has been performed. Each instrument's water vapor profile measurements were compiled into monthly zonal mean time series on a common latitude-pressure grid. These time series serve as basis for the ‘climatological’ validation approach used within the project. The evaluations include comparisons of monthly or annual zonal mean cross-sections and seasonal cycles in the tropical and extra-tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere averaged over one or more years, comparisons of inter-annual variability, and a study of the time evolution of physical features in water vapor such as the tropical tape recorder and polar vortex dehydration. Our knowledge of the atmospheric mean state in water vapor is best in the lower and middle stratosphere of the tropics and mid-latitudes, with a relative uncertainty of ±2-6% (as quantified by the standard deviation of the instruments’ multi-annual means). The uncertainty increases towards the polar regions (±10-15%), the mesosphere (±15%), and the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere below 100 hPa (±30-50%), where sampling issues add uncertainty due to large gradients and high natural variability in water vapor. The minimum found in multi-annual (1998-2008) mean water vapor in the tropical lower stratosphere is 3.5 ppmv (±14%), with slightly larger uncertainties for monthly mean values. The frequently used HALOE water vapor dataset shows consistently lower values than most other datasets throughout the atmosphere, with increasing deviations from the multi-instrument mean below 100 hPa in both the tropics and extra-tropics. The knowledge gained from these comparisons and regarding the quality of the individual datasets in different regions of the atmosphere will help to improve model-measurement comparisons (e.g. for diagnostics such as the tropical tape recorder or seasonal cycles), data merging activities, and studies of climate variability.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: text
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
Close ⊗
This website uses cookies and the analysis tool Matomo. More information can be found here...