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  • 1
    In:  Journal of Geophysical Research - Oceans, 95 (C9). pp. 16195-16206.
    Publication Date: 2016-07-12
    Description: Generalized models of thorium and particle cycling, data from Station P, and an inversion technique are used to obtain rate estimates of important biological and chemical transformations occurring in the water column. We first verify the inversion technique using an idealized data set generated by a finite difference model, and then apply the inversion technique to data from Station P. With the Station P data, predicted rate constants for adsorption and release of thorium between the dissolved and small particle phases are consistent with the results from other workers. The predicted rate constants for the interaction between small and large particles are smaller than previous estimates. The predicted concentration of large rapidly sinking particles is greater than the concentration of suspended non-sinking particles, whereas the reverse is usually assumed to be the case. The calculated sinking rate for the large particles is 20 m d−1. This sinking rate is an order of magnitude smaller than the large particle sinking rate inferred from sediment trap mass fluxes at two levels in the water column. The reason we predict a high large particle concentration and slow settling velocity has not been uniquely determined. Possible modifications of the current model that could help to reconcile the differences between observations and model predictions include: 1) two classes of rapidly sinking particles or rate constants that change with depth, 2) direct interactions between the large particle and dissolved phases, and 3) incorporation of a continuous distribution of particle size and settling velocity.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: The ocean is estimated to contribute up to ~20% of global fluxes of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O), an important greenhouse gas and ozone depletion agent. Marine oxygen minimum zones contribute disproportionately to this flux. To further understand the partition of nitrification and denitrification and their environmental controls on marine N2O fluxes, we report new relationships between oxygen concentration and rates of N2O production from nitrification and denitrification directly measured with 15N tracers in the Eastern Tropical Pacific. Highest N2O production rates occurred near the oxic‐anoxic interface, where there is strong potential for N2O efflux to the atmosphere. The dominant N2O source in oxygen minimum zones was nitrate reduction, the rates of which were 1 to 2 orders of magnitude higher than those of ammonium oxidation. The presence of oxygen significantly inhibited the production of N2O from both nitrification and denitrification. These experimental data provide new constraints to a multicomponent global ocean biogeochemical model, which yielded annual oceanic N2O efflux of 1.7–4.4 Tg‐N (median 2.8 Tg‐N, 1 Tg = 1012 g), with denitrification contributing 20% to the oceanic flux. Thus, denitrification should be viewed as a net N2O production pathway in the marine environment.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: text
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