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  • 2015-2019  (118)
  • 1920-1924  (1)
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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0044-8249
    Keywords: Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 2 Tab.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2017-01-06
    Description: Der Austausch von Wissen und Informationen zwischen verschiedenen gesellschaftlichen Gruppen ist oft nicht trivial. Vertreter aus der Öffentlichkeit, verschiedenen Fachkreisen und Behörden oder aus der Wissenschaft generieren sehr unterschiedliches Wissen unter Einbeziehung von unterschiedlichen Graden der Problemorientierung und ihrer jeweiligen Sprache. Zur Überwindung dieser Barrieren stehen verschiedene Instrumente zur Verfügung. In diesem Artikel werden drei weitverbreitete Formen des Wissenstransfers diskutiert: (1) Assessments mit ihren verschiedenen Formen z.B. auf unterschiedlichen räumlichen Skalen, (2) Indikatoren mit möglichen Rahmenkonzepten, Indikatorensätze und Formen der Evaluierung und (3) web-basierte Plattformen als einfache Möglichkeit der Verbreitung von aktuellen Informationen. Dabei werden zwei Beispiele ausführlich dargestellt, nämlich das am Klimbüro für Polargebiete und Meeresspiegelanstieg konzipierte Meereisportal und der am Mitteldeutschen Klimabüro entwicklete Deutsche Dürreatlas.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Inbook , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-10-07
    Description: This is an open access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose.
    Description: Fungal secretomes contain a wide range of hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes, including cellulases, hemicellulases, pectinases, and lignin-degrading accessory enzymes, that synergistically drive litter decomposition in the environment. While secretome studies of model organisms such as Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Aspergillus species have greatly expanded our knowledge of these enzymes, few have extended secretome characterization to environmental isolates or conducted side-by-side comparisons of diverse species. Thus, the mechanisms of carbon degradation by many ubiquitous soil fungi remain poorly understood. Here we use a combination of LC-MS/MS, genomic, and bioinformatic analyses to characterize and compare the protein composition of the secretomes of four recently isolated, cosmopolitan, Mn(II)-oxidizing Ascomycetes (Alternaria alternata SRC1lrK2f, Stagonospora sp. SRC1lsM3a, Pyrenochaeta sp. DS3sAY3a, and Paraconiothyrium sporulosum AP3s5-JAC2a). We demonstrate that the organisms produce a rich yet functionally similar suite of extracellular enzymes, with species-specific differences in secretome composition arising from unique amino acid sequences rather than overall protein function. Furthermore, we identify not only a wide range of carbohydrate-active enzymes that can directly oxidize recalcitrant carbon, but also an impressive suite of redox-active accessory enzymes that suggests a role for Fenton-based hydroxyl radical formation in indirect, non-specific lignocellulose attack. Our findings highlight the diverse oxidative capacity of these environmental isolates and enhance our understanding of the role of filamentous Ascomycetes in carbon turnover in the environment.
    Description: This work was supported by the National Science Foundation (www.nsf.gov), grant numbers EAR-1249489 and CBET-1336496, both awarded to CMH. Personal support for CAZ was also provided by Harvard University (www.harvard.edu) and by a Ford Foundation (www.fordfoundation.org) Predoctoral Fellowship administered by the National Academies.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2015-11-07
    Description: The Pleistocene was characterized by worldwide shifts in community compositions. Some of these shifts were a result of changes in fire regimes, which influenced the distribution of species belonging to fire-dependent communities. We studied an endangered juniper–oak shrubland specialist, the black-capped vireo ( Vireo atricapilla ). This species was locally extirpated in parts of Texas and Oklahoma by the end of the 1980s as a result of habitat change and loss, predation, brood parasitism, and anthropogenic fire suppression. We sequenced multiple nuclear loci and used coalescence methods to obtain a deeper understanding of historical population trends than that typically available from microsatellites or mtDNA. We compared our estimated population history, a long-term history of the fire regime and ecological niche models representing the mid-Holocene, last glacial maximum, and last interglacial. Our Bayesian skyline plots showed a pattern of historical population fluctuation that was consistent with changing fire regimes. Genetic data suggest that the species is genetically unstructured, and that the current population should be orders of magnitude larger than it is at present. We suggest that fire suppression and habitat loss are primary factors contributing to the recent decline of the BCVI, although the role of climate change since the last glacial maximum is unclear at present. We used DNA sequences from multiple nuclear loci to investigate the long-term population history of the black-capped vireo. We found that population fluctuations are correlated with changes in the fire regime that affects the extent of the species habitat. The data suggest that BCVIs could be much more abundant than they are at present, owing likely to fire suppression and other anthropogenic influences on habitat extent.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Wiley
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2015-12-10
    Description: Author(s): A. D. Avery, S. J. Mason, D. Bassett, D. Wesenberg, and B. L. Zink We present measurements of thermal and electrical conductivity of polycrystalline permalloy (Ni-Fe), aluminum, copper, cobalt, and nickel thin films with thickness 〈 200  nm. A micromachined silicon-nitride membrane thermal-isolation platform allows measurements of both transport properties on a si… [Phys. Rev. B 92, 214410] Published Tue Dec 08, 2015
    Keywords: Magnetism
    Print ISSN: 1098-0121
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-3795
    Topics: Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2015-10-29
    Description: The recycling of material resources lies at the heart of the industrial ecology (IE) metaphor. The very notion of the industrial ecosystem is motivated by the idea that we should learn from natural ecosystems how to “close the loop.” Recycling is not just central to IE, it is part of everyday life. Unfortunately, how the IE community and the public at large think about recycling includes several misconceptions that have the potential to misguide environmental assessments, policies, and actions that deal with recycling and thus undermine its environmental potential. One misconception stems from naïve assumptions regarding recycled material displacing primary production. Two others assert the environmental advantages of recycling material multiple times, or at least in a closed loop. A final misconception is the assumption that the distinction between closed and open recycling loops is generally useful. This article explains why these misconceptions are flawed, discusses the implications, and presents an alternative set of principles to better harness the potential environmental benefits of closing material loops.
    Print ISSN: 1088-1980
    Electronic ISSN: 1530-9290
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by Wiley
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  • 7
  • 8
    Publication Date: 2017-10-14
    Print ISSN: 1088-1980
    Electronic ISSN: 1530-9290
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by Wiley
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-10-20
    Description: This paper presents development of a novel three dimensional imprinted micro check valve for biomedical applications. Due to its rapid and cost effective fabrication techniques, micro check valve devices are widely used in several areas of the biomedical industry such as intravenous (I.V.) fluid transfusion. The fabrication method consists of SolidWorks modelling and 3D printing steps for prototyping. The micro check valve is a self-controlled valve that relies on pressure change for operation. In this particular design, a sphere was used to prevent any backward flow allowing the pressure change to only initiate a one-way flow. The tests showed that the check valve design allowed for zero backward flow while also allowing flow through the device in the proper direction at a rate of 98.6 μl/sec.
    Print ISSN: 1757-8981
    Electronic ISSN: 1757-899X
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2016-03-10
    Description: The origins of the genus Homo are murky, but by H. erectus, bigger brains and bodies had evolved that, along with larger foraging ranges, would have increased the daily energetic requirements of hominins. Yet H. erectus differs from earlier hominins in having relatively smaller teeth, reduced chewing muscles, weaker maximum bite force capabilities, and a relatively smaller gut. This paradoxical combination of increased energy demands along with decreased masticatory and digestive capacities is hypothesized to have been made possible by adding meat to the diet, by mechanically processing food using stone tools, or by cooking. Cooking, however, was apparently uncommon until 500,000 years ago, and the effects of carnivory and Palaeolithic processing techniques on mastication are unknown. Here we report experiments that tested how Lower Palaeolithic processing technologies affect chewing force production and efficacy in humans consuming meat and underground storage organs (USOs). We find that if meat comprised one-third of the diet, the number of chewing cycles per year would have declined by nearly 2 million (a 13% reduction) and total masticatory force required would have declined by 15%. Furthermore, by simply slicing meat and pounding USOs, hominins would have improved their ability to chew meat into smaller particles by 41%, reduced the number of chews per year by another 5%, and decreased masticatory force requirements by an additional 12%. Although cooking has important benefits, it appears that selection for smaller masticatory features in Homo would have been initially made possible by the combination of using stone tools and eating meat.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zink, Katherine D -- Lieberman, Daniel E -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 24;531(7595):500-3. doi: 10.1038/nature16990. Epub 2016 Mar 9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Human Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, 11 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26958832" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Animals ; Bite Force ; Carnivory ; Diet/*history ; Female ; Food Handling/*history ; Goats ; History, Ancient ; Hominidae ; Humans ; Male ; Mastication/*physiology ; Meat/*history ; Particle Size ; Plants ; Tool Use Behavior ; Tooth/physiology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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