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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-9104
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé La technique d'une part et l'abondance des aliments d'autre part ont causé des modifications dans l'alimentation par les céréales, aussi bien en ce qui concerne la quantité que la qualité. Le développement de la fabrication moderne du pain présente les caractéristiques suivants: préférence du froment, des farines très blanches, des procédés accélérés de fermentation et de cuisson dans la fabrication. En conséquence, on obtient des pains plus riches en calories, mais pauvres en subtances nutritives et aromatiques ayant une croûte mince et molle et une mie légère ne nécessitant pas d'efforts de mastication. En vitaminisant et en révalorisant artificiellement le pain, on ne peut remplacer qu'une partie minime des substances enlevées au blé par la moulure. L'utilisation de plus en plus fréquente de procédés chimiques dans l'agriculture et le stockage des récoltes entraîne l'existence de plus en plus importante de résidus non physiologiques dans le blé. Parmi ces produits et procédés ont été mentionnés: un produit destiné à raccourcir la tige du blé, produit qui influence l'azote des plantes; le pourcentage élevé en plomb découvert dans le blé ayant poussé à proximité des autostrades; le pourcentage plus élevé en „Phenantren“ et „3–4-Benzpyren“, trouvé dans les plantes poussant dans les régions industrielles; la production d'aflatoxine causée par la moisissure des produits emmagasinés; les résidus de produits insecticides connus jusqu'à présent; les modifications néfastes constatées dans le blé traité aux rayons gamma en vue d'une conservation plus facile. Les modifications dues à l'influence de la chaleur de cuisson sont à constater particulièrement dans la croûte du pain; elles frappent avant tout certaines substances sensibles à la chaleur ainsi que des processus de condensation suivantMaillard.
    Abstract: Summary Engineering progress and an abundance of foodstuff are the cause of strong quantitative and qualitative changes observed in our bread. The development of modern bread is marked by a preference given to wheat, by a lower degree of grinding up, by a short time of fermentation and baking, which results in bread of increased caloric content, reduced active agents and content of aroma, in bread with a thin, soft crust and a very porous crumb, thus necessitating a lesser mastication. By means of an artificial enrichment of vitamins, minerals, and separated amino-acids, only a very small part of active agents separated by grinding up can be replaced. Increasing application of chemical processes in agriculture and storage ensued an increased presence of non-physiological residues in corn. Among them are mentioned an agent to shorten the length of stalks that interferes with the nitrogen economy of plants; an increased content of lead in fields near highways; an increased content of phenanthren and 3–4 benzpyren in fields near industrial areas; the possible formation of aflatoxin through getting mouldy during storage; residues of pesticides that have become known up to now; as well as hitherto prove harmful alterations due to ray treatment by gamma rays to corn to achieve a better preservation. Changes brought about by the heat during the baking process are particularly clearly shown in the crust of bread which essentially have regard to damaging heat-sensitive contents and proceedings of condensation according toMaillard.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Technisierung und Überfluß an Nahrungsmitteln sind Ursache von starken quantitativen und qualitativen Veränderungen der Brotnahrung. Die Entwicklung des modernen Brotes ist durch Bevorzugung des Weizens, niedriger Ausmahlung, kurzer Gär- und Backzeiten gekennzeichnet, was zu Broten von erhöhtem Kaloriengehalt, vermindertem Wirkstoff- und Aromagehalt, von Broten mit dünner, weicher Kruste und sehr poröser Krume führt, die geringere Kauarbeit erfordern. Durch künstliche Anreicherung mit Vitaminen, Mineralstoffen und Aminosäuren kann nur ein kleiner Teil der bei der Vermahlung abgetrennten Wirkstoffe ersetzt werden. Steigende Anwendung chemischer Verfahren in der Land- und Lagerwirtschaft hat die vermehrte Anwesenheit unphysiologischer Rückstände im Getreide zur Folge. Unter ihnen werden erwähnt ein Halmverkürzungsmittel, das in den Stickstoffhaushalt der Pflanzen eingreift, der in der Nähe von Autobahnen erhöhte Bleigehalt, der in industrienahen Gebieten erhöhte Gehalt an Phenanthren und 3–4-Benzpyren, die mögliche Bildung von Aflatoxin durch Verschimmelung während des Lagerns, die bisher bekanntgewordenen Rückstände von Schädlingsbekämpfungsmitteln sowie die bisher nachgewiesenen nachteiligen Veränderungen einer Bestrahlung des Getreides mit Gamma-Strahlen zwecks bequemerer Konservierung. Unter dem Einfluß der Backhitze sich vollziehende Veränderungen kommen besonders deutlich in der Kruste des Brotes zum Ausdruck, die sich im wesentlichen auf eine Schädigung hitzeempfindlicher Inhaltsstoffe und Kondensationsvorgänge nachMaillard beziehen.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-4927
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The phosphoglucomutase (PGM) electrophoretic phenotype of the mouse (Mus musculus) consists of several distinct components which can be grouped into two major zones designated PGM-1 and PGM-2. Evidence presented here indicates that each zone is controlled by a single genetic locus denoted Pgm-1 and Pgm-2, respectively. Two variant forms segregated at the Pgm-1 locus. They were codominantly expressed and inherited as alleles at an autosomal locus. The alleles were termed Pgm-1 a (fast) and Pgm-1 b (slow). These alleles were separately fixed in a number of inbred strains of mice. Preliminary evidence based on wild mouse phenotypes indicates that variant forms also exist for PGM-2 which are inherited as alleles at an autosomal locus. Genetic linkage relationships have not been determined for these loci. PGM-1 variants and PGM-2 were expressed in mouse fibroblasts in vitro.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-4927
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Erythrocyte and tissue lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) electrophoretic patterns of 26 rodent species from ten families were examined. The LDH B gene was observed to range in erythrocyte expression from species without detectable B subunits to those which predominantly expressed B subunits. However, the shift in erythrocyte B gene expression was not observed in the tissue LDH electrophoretic patterns between rodent species. Species which did not express erythrocyte B subunits, or only small quantities of B subunits, were restricted to the suborder Myomorpha. In erythrocytes of other rodent species, and most mammals, LDH B subunits are expressed equally or in excess of A subunits. The results suggest either structural differences in the LDH B gene between Myomorph and non-Myomorph rodents or a regulator gene which controls the expression of the B gene in Myomorph erythrocytes. Existing evidence favors the latter hypothesis.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-4927
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Carbonic anhydrase IdMichigan, an electrophoretic variant of human red cell carbonic anhydrase I, was purified from erythrocytes obtained from an individual heterozygous for the trait. Primary structural analysis indicates that a lysine residue has exchanged for a threonine residue in the variant enzyme. After isolation, there was approximately 1.8 times as much normal as variant enzyme. Thermostability studies demonstrated that carbonic anhydrase Id was more thermolabile than the normal enzyme. The normal and variant enzymes showed no differences in specific carboxylesterase activity or CO2 hydratase activity. Utilizing the carboxylesterase activity toward β-naphthyl acetate, the normal and variant enzymes had similar Michaelis constants, pH profiles, and rates of inhibition by acetazolamide. Immunochemical studies did not demonstrate an antigenic difference for the variant enzyme.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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