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  • 2000-2004  (33)
  • 1965-1969  (53)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1365-3059
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of temperature and relative humidity (RH) on the in vitro germination and viability of conidia of the apple brown rot fungus (Monilinia fructigena), and on colonization and sporulation on detached fruits by M. fructigena. Conidia only germinated under near-saturation humidity (≥ 97% RH) and the rate of germination initially increased with temperature to a maximum at ≈ 23–25°C and then decreased. Conidia germinated rapidly – more than 70% of viable conidia had germinated within 2 h at 20 and 25°C. The rate of colonization on detached fruits increased log-linearly with increasing temperature. Sporulation on detached fruits was not observed at 5 or 25°C; sporulation appeared to be unaffected by either temperature (10–20°C) or RH (45–98%) once infection was established. Detached conidia remained viable for a long period of time, up to 20 days, the longest assessment time in this study, depending on storage temperature (10 or 20°C) and RH (45 or 85%). Temperature appeared to be more important than RH in affecting conidial viability. Low temperature and high RH resulted in reduced loss of conidial viability. Storage at 10°C and 85% RH for up to 20 days appeared not to affect conidial viability. These results indicate that environmental conditions during the main UK growing seasons are unlikely to be limiting factors for the development of brown rot on apple.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Plant breeding 119 (2000), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1439-0523
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Five Nordic spring barley lines (‘Rolfi’, ‘Arve’, ‘Botnia’, ‘Pohto’ and WW7977) and doubled haploid (DH) populations from a half diallel of crosses between them, were sown in the field in Finland over 2 years and were artificially infected with Pyrenophora teres, the causal agent of net blotch. The purpose of the experiments was to determine the extent of yield loss under net blotch infection in a range of parent barleys and DH populations differing in symptom expression. Analysis of foliar damage symptoms, yield and aerial biomass data indicated that, in both years, there were statistically significant differences among parents and crosses, but the relationships between symptom expression and yield maintenance and between symptom expression and aerial biomass maintenance were stronger in 1997, when yields were higher and net blotch was less severe.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1365-3059
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: The effects of temperature on the length of the incubation and latent periods of hawthorn powdery mildew, caused by Podosphaera clandestina, were studied. At constant temperatures over the range 10–28°C, the incubation period ranged from 5 to 14 days and the latent period from 5 to 16 days; no visible colonies had developed at 30°C after 15 days. The relationships between temperature and the rates of fungus development within the incubation and latent periods were well described by a nonlinear model. The resulting curves were asymmetrically bell-shaped with an optimum temperature of approximately 23°C. The lengths of the incubation and latent periods under fluctuating temperatures were also determined, and were used to evaluate the models developed from constant temperature experiments for their accuracy of prediction. The incubation and latent periods under fluctuating temperature regimes were predicted using a rate-summation scheme with a time step of 24 min, by integrating the respective incubation and latent rate functions obtained under constant temperatures. The predicted incubation or latent periods agreed well with the observed values. Under constant temperature the interval between the times when symptoms and sporulation on the same leaflet were first observed was very short, on average 〈1 day, and was not significantly correlated with temperature. However, this interval was negatively correlated with mean temperature under fluctuating regimes.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1365-3059
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Spatio-temporal development of brown rot (Monilinia fructigena) on apple and pear was monitored in an apple (cv. Cox) orchard and a pear orchard of several cultivars over several years. Disease on individual trees was recorded weekly from July to harvest, individual fruits with brown rot were tagged but not removed and rot-origin identified. On apple cv. Cox and pear (cvs Conference and Comice), all primary rot arose from infection via wounds caused by insects, birds and growth cracks. Birds were the most important wounding agents on pear in the field. Secondary (fruit-to-fruit contact) rot was considerably less than primary rot, especially for pear. Incidence of disease (percentage of fruits with brown rot) increased gradually from late July up to harvest; the final disease incidence varied with seasons and cultivars, ranging from 1 to 11%. For pear, Comice had greater incidence than Conference. Significant aggregation of diseased fruits among trees was detected for assessment dates when the overall incidence of disease was greater than 0·5%. On Cox and Conference, significant correlation of disease incidence between adjacent trees or trees separated by one or more trees (i.e. spatial lag measured as units of distance between adjacent trees) was detected, but there was no clear relationship between the correlation, the distance or time. For Comice, there was consistent and significant positive correlation of brown rot incidence over 3 years. It is speculated that behavioural characteristics of wounding agents may have played an important role in influencing the spatio-temporal dynamics of brown rot on apple and pear.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0800
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Résumé On a séparé le tissu intestinal en muqueuse et muscle, lesquels ont été incubés in vitro dans une solution d'acide aminé marqué; ainsi on a pu étudier l'absorption intracellulaire de l'acide aminé. On a trouvé que la musculature intestinale ne peut accumuler un acide aminé contre un gradient de concentration. Il semble qu'il existe dans le muscle une barrière contre la diffusion dont la significance est discutée.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 217 (1968), S. 550-551 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The relevant spin resonance spectrum (Fig. la and b) could be completely simulated (Fig. Ic) if the following splitting constants were assumed: a1= 1.135 gauss (two protons); a2= 1.562 gauss (two protons); a3 = 2.362 gauss (two protons); a4= 5.196 gauss (two protons); a5 = 5.469 gauss (two ...
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 215 (1967), S. 33-35 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The dynamics of the diffusion of organochlorine pesticides in ecosystems can be described by a model based on the theory of sets. The model shows that research which relies on measurement of the pesticide at different periods of time can lead to misleading ...
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 214 (1967), S. 1307-1311 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Residues of organochlorine insecticides tend to be greater in marine organisms of the higher trophic levels, but the tendency is not found in all food chains. The residues of dieldrin in livers and eggs of adult birds are independent of the age of the bird. Marine animals do not appear to be better ...
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 214 (1967), S. 80-81 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] In the course of investigating free radical formation in polynuclear hydrocarbons, it was found that well resolved and reproducible electron spin resonance spectra could be obtained from some of these compounds simply by heating them in an open electron spin resonance tube to temperatures above ...
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