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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The Bering Sea Experiment (BESEX) was conducted in February and March 1973 to study ice cover, sea state and zones of precipitation by means of airborne microwave radiometers over the Bering Sea. The images were computer processed from satellite data tapes. In processing the tapes, compensation was made for satellite attitude and altitude variations, as well as for image rectification. Visual imagery was taken in the 0.4 to 1.1-u range, and infrared imagery in the 8.0 to 13.0-u range.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70692 , NOO-TR-245 , X-910-74-186
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Synoptic views of the entire polar regions of earth were obtained free of the usual persistent cloud cover using a scanning microwave radiometer operating at a wavelength of 1.55 cm on board the Nimbus-5 satellite. Three different views at each pole are presented utilizing data obtained at approximately one-month intervals during the winter of 1972-1973. The major discoveries resulting from an analysis of these data are as follows: (1) Large discrepancies exist between the climatic norm ice cover depicted in various atlases and the actual extent of the canopies. (2) The distribution of multiyear ice in the north polar region is markedly different from that predicted by existing ice dynamics models. (3) Irregularities in the edge of the Antarctic sea ice pack occur that have neither been observed previously nor anticipated. (4) The brightness temperatures of the Greenland and Antarctica glaciers show interesting contours probably related to the ice and snow morphologic structure.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70493 , X-652-73-269
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: In order to demonstrate the feasibility of the microwave radiometers to be carried aboard the Nimbus 5 and 6 satellites and proposed for one of the earth observatory satellites, remote measurements of microwave radiation at wavelengths ranging from 0.8 to 21 cm have been made of a variety of the earth's surfaces from the NASA CV-990 A/C. Brightness temperatures of sea water surfaces of varying roughness, of terrain with varying soil moisture, and of sea ice of varying structure were observed. In each case, around truth information was available for correlation with the microwave brightness temperature. The utility of passive microwave radiometry in determining ocean surface wind speeds, at least for values higher than 7 meters/second has been demonstrated. In addition, it was shown that radiometric signatures can be used to determine soil moisture in unvegetated terrain to within five percentage points by weight. Finally, it was demonstrated that first year thick, multi-year, and first year thin sea ice can be distinguished by observing their differing microwave emissivities at various wavelengths.
    Keywords: INSTRUMENTATION AND PHOTOGRAPHY
    Type: 4th Ann. Earth Resources Program Rev., Vol. 1; 19 p
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  • 4
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: The application of microwave radiometers for measuring Arctic ice is discussed. The acquisition of Arctic ice data simultaneously on the surface with conventional instruments and remotely with microwave and infrared radiometers, photography, and a laser geodolite is described. A multifrequency view of a large multilayer ice floe is presented. The significance of the data recordings is explained.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Significant Accomplishments in Sci., 1971; p 13-18
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  • 5
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2005-11-30
    Description: The feasibility of carrying microwave radiometers on Nimbus E and F missions for sea ice surveys was studied in the arctic using aircraft. It was found that passive microwave signatures of Arctic Sea ice relate specifically to the structure and type of ice. It is concluded that a new tool for conducting ice surveys from aircraft and satellites with remote sensors was discovered.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Significant Accomplishments in Sci., 1970; p 18-21
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  • 6
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2006-03-26
    Description: Photographic data and microwave emission images from the Great Lake ice formation are compared for their applicability to commercial shipping interests. A synoptic view of the microwave radiation from the lake area ice shows a large variation in brightness temperature. The snow ice appears to have the highest microwave brightness temperatures, whereas the thick clear ice shows up some 30 degrees kelvin colder, and the thin clear ice is colder still with a 1.55 cm radiation.
    Keywords: INSTRUMENTATION AND PHOTOGRAPHY
    Type: Significant Accomplishments in Sci.; p 187-189
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-08-16
    Description: Synoptic views of the entire polar regions of earth have been obtained free of the usual persistent cloud cover using a scanning microwave radiometer operating at a wavelength of 1.55 cm on board the Nimbus-5 satellite. Three different views at each pole are presented utilizing data obtained at approximately one-month intervals from December 1972 to February 1973. Large discrepancies exist between the long-term ice cover depicted in various atlases and the actual extent of the canopies. The distribution of multiyear ice in the north polar region is markedly different from that predicted by existing ice dynamics models. Irregularities in the edge of the Antarctic sea ice pack occur that have neither been observed previously nor anticipated. The brightness temperatures of the Greenland and Antarctic glaciers show interesting contours probably related to the ice and snow morphologic structure.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: American Meteorological Society; vol. 55
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-08-16
    Description: Microwave radiometry has been used for the remote sensing of soil moisture in a series of aircraft flights over an agricultural test area in the vicinity of Phoenix, Arizona. The radiometers covered the wavelength range 0.8-21 cm. Ground truth in the form of gravimetric measurements of the soil moisture in the top 15 cm were obtained for 200 fields at this site. The results indicate that it is possible to monitor moisture variations with airborne radiometers. The emission is a function of the radiometer wavelength and the distribution of the moisture in the soil. At a wavelength of 1.55 cm there is little or no variation in the emission for soil moisture values below 10 or 15% moisture content by weight. Above this value, there is a linear decrease in the emission with a slope of approximately 3 K for each percentage point increase in soil moisture.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research; 79; Jan. 10
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-08-16
    Description: A combination of remote sensing from an aircraft and simultaneous surface measurements have confirmed the feasibility of identifying old and new sea ice according to its emission of thermal radiation at wavelengths between 0.3 and 3 cm. Emissivity of first-year thick ice with a surface temperature of about 260 K is 0.95 or greater for wavelengths between 0.81 and 11 cm; the emissivity of multiyear ice is 0.8 at 0.81 cm and 0.95 at 11 cm, increasing monotonically in this wavelength interval. The ease with which multiyear ice can be distinguished from first-year ice using a passive microwave radiometer is demonstrated by comparing mosaics prepared both from photographs and images of 1.55-cm radiation.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research; 78; June 20
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Principles pertinent to the utilization of 1.55 cm wavelength radiation emanating from the surface of the earth for studying the changing characteristics of polar sea ice are briefly reviewed. Recent data obtained at that wavelength with an imaging radiometer on-board the Nimbus 5 satellite are used to illustrate how the seasonal changes in extent of sea ice in both polar regions may be monitored free of atmospheric interference. Within a season, changes in the compactness of the sea ice are also observed from the satellite. Some substantial areas of the Arctic sea ice canopy identified as first-year ice in the past winter were observed not to melt this summer, a graphic illustration of the eventual formation of multiyear ice in the Arctic. Finally, the microwave emissivity of some of the multiyear ice areas near the North Pole was found to increase significantly in the summer, probably due to liquid water content in the firm layer.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: X-652-73-341 , NASA-TM-X-70529 , Interdisciplinary Symp. on Advanced Concepts and Techniques in the Study of Snow and Ice Resources
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