Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
Recent improvements in instrumentation and field techniques have made time domain electromagnetic methods more acceptable. This acceptance has prompted further theoretical work for use in the interpretation of field data.The asymptotic solutions for the transient electromagnetic field components in the vicinity of a fault zone separating two media of high resistivity contrast are obtained for low frequency or late time. Excitation is by normally incident plane waves at the earth's surface. Because of the slow convergence of the asymptotic time series expansions, a numerical polygonal inversion is performed on the real part, or in-phase term, of the time-harmonic surface expressions for the electric and magnetic field components.For both impulsive and step excitation the transient electric field normal to the contact is more sensitive to changes in the structural attitude of the fault plane than the transient electric field parallel to the contact. The transient anomalous vertical magnetic field for either impulsive or step excitation appears to be most diagnostic of dip angle, although waveform shape does not seem to be significantly dependent on the slope of the fault. For dip angles greater than 90 degrees, as measured on the poorly conducting side of the contact, all field components become more insensitive as indicators of the structural attitude. The results presented here should be useful in obtaining several geologic parameters descriptive of a fault zone or lateral resistivity inhomogeneity from transient electromagnetic soundings; they should also provide an aid to differentiating with available geological information between layering effects on transient electromagnetic responses and effects largely due to lateral changes in resistivity.
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