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  • 1
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: The modulus of a fiber can be increased by plying with it a higher-modulus fiber. In this case, the modulus of the combination is characterized by a springs-in-parallel model, and the modulus of the composite is a linear function of the per cent of the second fiber in the composite. Another method of obtaining reinforcement is to melt-blend a higher-modulus polymer with the substrate polymer. With polyamides, this leads to a certain degree of amide interchange and block copolymer formation which depends on the compatibility of the polymers as well as on the usual kinetic factors. If the dispersion of the higher-modulus polymer is such that aggregate size is relatively large (e.g., ≥500 Å) and if the adhesion between the two polymers is good, a springs-in-parallel-type reinforcement is the best which can be obtained. In melt-blend polyamides, a “nonclassical” phenomenon in reinforcement has been noted when the diameters of the dispersed aggregates are ≤500 Å and when there are a relatively high number of hydrogen bonding sites on both polymer components. In this case, it appears that moduli appreciably higher than predicted from a springs-in-parallel model are obtained as well as higher than expected Tg values. A mechanism is proposed to account for this “nonclassical” behavior along with data to support it. Another type of anomaly is observed when the components of the blend are isomorphous. In this case, the reinforcement is considerably less than expected.
    Additional Material: 16 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 678-687 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Growth and dissolution rates of nickel sulfate α-hexahydrate were measured as functions of the concentration driving force in a laboratory-scale fluidized-bed crystallizer for the temperature range 35° to 50°C and the crystal size range 0.5 to 4.0 mm.Dissolution rates at a given temperature and crystal size were first order in the concentration driving force. Growth rates were about one-quarter of dissolution rates and depended on a higher exponent (around 1.3) of the concentration driving force. This exponent was not significantly affected by variations in crystal size, but decreased as temperature increased. The apparent variation of growth rate itself with crystal size at constant temperature was slight. Growth rates were found to be insensitive to solids concentration.
    Additional Material: 12 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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