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  • 1
    ISSN: 1435-1536
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1435-1536
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-7357
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 23 (1979), S. 2627-2637 
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: The plasma polymerization of C2F4 was carried out in both continuous wave and pulsed rf discharges to establish the effects of reaction conditions on the kinetics of polymer deposition and the polymer structure. ESCA spectra of the polymer show evidence for —CF3, —CF2, and —CH2— groups. Under conditions favoring low deposition rates, the dominant functional group is —CF2—. At higher deposition rates the concentration of —CF2— groups is reduced and a more crosslinked polymer is produced. Both polymer deposition rates and polymer structures were essentially identical when using continuous wave and pulsed rf discharges.
    Additional Material: 14 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0681
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Übersicht Mit dem Verfahren der Finiten Elemente wird das Verhalten einer nichtkugelförmigen Blase in einer zähen inkompressiblen Flüssigkeit bei rotationssymmetrischen Bedingungen untersucht. Die Navier-Stokesschen Gleichungen werden mit der Methode der Finiten Elemente näherungsweise gelöst. Das Strömungsfeld um die Blase wird in kleine dreieckige Elemente zerlegt, wobei die Oberfläche der Blase durch isoparametrische Elemente mit gekrümmten Seiten ersetzt wird. Die numerischen Rechnungen werden für den Zusammenbruch einer Blase, die anfangs kugelförmig war, in der Nähe einer ebenen festen Wand durchgeführt. Das Ergebnis zeigt, daß sich die Geschwindigkeit des in der Blase entstehenden Flüssigkeitsstrahls wegen des Einflusses der Zähigkeit vermindert.
    Notes: Summary The finite element method is used for the analysis of the behavior of a nonspherical bubble in a viscous incompressible liquid under axial conditions. The finite element approximations of the Navier Stokes equations are formulated by taking velocity and pressure as unknown variables. The flow field is discretized by triangular elements, and the bubble surface is represented by isoparametric elements with curved sides. This numerical technique is applied to the simulation of an initially spherical vapor bubble collapsing near a plane solid wall. It is made clear that a jet formed on the bubble is decelerated by the effect of liquid viscosity.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-11-09
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2016-03-24
    Description: Although several molecules have been shown to play important roles in subtype specification of neocortical neurons, the entire mechanism involved in the specification, in particular, of upper cortical plate (UCP) neurons still remains unclear. The UCP, which is responsible for intracortical connections in the neocortex, comprises histologically, functionally, and molecularly...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2016-02-12
    Description: We present statistical properties of diffuse Lyα haloes (LAHs) around high- z star-forming galaxies with large Subaru samples of Lyα emitters (LAEs) at z = 2.2. We make subsamples defined by the physical quantities of LAEs’ central Lyα luminosities, ultraviolet (UV) magnitudes, Lyα equivalent widths, and UV slopes, and investigate LAHs’ radial surface brightness (SB) profiles and scale lengths r n as a function of these physical quantities. We find that there exist prominent LAHs around LAEs with faint Lyα luminosities, bright UV luminosities, and small Lyα equivalent widths in cumulative radial Lyα SB profiles. We confirm this trend with the anticorrelation between r n and Lyα luminosities (equivalent widths) based on the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient that is = –0.9 (–0.7) corresponding to the 96 per cent (93 per cent) confidence level, although the correlation between r n and UV magnitudes is not clearly found in the rank correlation coefficient. Our results suggest that LAEs with properties similar to typical Lyman-break galaxies (with faint Lyα luminosities and small equivalent widths) possess more prominent LAHs. We investigate scenarios for the major physical origins of LAHs with our results. Because we find relatively small Lyα equivalent widths up to 77 Å in LAHs that include LAEs’ central components, these results suggest that the cold stream scenario is not preferred. There remain two possible scenarios of Lyα scattering in circumgalactic medium and satellite galaxies that cannot be tested with our observational data.
    Print ISSN: 0035-8711
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-2966
    Topics: Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-12-13
    Description: This study evaluates 3D cloud effects on the radiation budget with a combined use of active sensor CPR/CLOUDSAT and imager MODIS/AQUA data on the A-train. An algorithm is devised for constructing 3D cloud fields based on satellite-observed cloud information. The 3D cloud fields thus constructed are used to calculate the broadband solar and thermal radiative fluxes with a 3D radiative transfer code developed by the authors. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of cloud morphology on solar radiative transfer in cloudy atmosphere. For this purpose, 3D cloud fields are constructed with the new satellite-based method, to which full 3D-RT simulations are applied. The simulated 3D radiation fields are then used to examine and quantify errors of existing typical plane parallel approximations, i.e. Plane-Parallel Approximation (PPA), Independent Pixel Approximation (IPA) and Tilted Independent Pixel Approximation (TIPA). Such 3D-RT simulations also serve to address another objective of this study, i.e. to devise an accurate approximation and to characterize the observed specific 3D-RT effects by the cloud morphology based on knowledge of idealized 3D-RT effects. We introduce a modified approach based on an optimum value of diffusivity factor to better approximate the radiative fluxes for arbitrary solar zenith angle determined from the results of 3D radiative transfer simulations to redeem the overcorrections of these approximations for large Solar Zenith Angles (SZAs). This new approach, called Slant path Independent Pixel Approximation (SIPA), is found to be better than other approximations when SZA is large for some cloud cases. Based on the SZA dependence of the errors of these approximations relative to 3D computations, satellite-observed real cloud cases are found to fall into either of three types of different morphologies, i.e. isolated cloud type, upper cloud-roughened type and lower cloud-roughened type. Such a classification offers a novel insight into error characteristics of the approximations that are interpreted in the context of specific cloud morphology.
    Print ISSN: 0148-0227
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Wiley on behalf of American Geophysical Union (AGU).
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2016-12-10
    Description: We present physical properties of spectroscopically confirmed Lyα emitters (LAEs) with very large rest-frame Lyα equivalent widths EW 0 (Lyα). Although the definition of large EW 0 (Lyα) LAEs is usually difficult due to limited statistical and systematic uncertainties, we identify six LAEs selected from ~3000 LAEs at z ~ 2 with reliable measurements of EW 0 (Lyα) ~= 200–400 Å given by careful continuum determinations with our deep photometric and spectroscopic data. These large EW 0 (Lyα) LAEs do not have signatures of AGN, but notably small stellar masses of M * = 10 7–8 M and high specific star formation rates (star formation rate per unit galaxy stellar mass) of ~100 Gyr –1 . These LAEs are characterized by the median values of L (Lyα) = 3.7 x 10 42  erg s –1 and M UV = –18.0 as well as the blue UV continuum slope of β = –2.5 ± 0.2 and the low dust extinction $E(B-V)_{\rm *} = 0.02^{+0.04}_{-0.02}$ , which indicate a high median Lyα escape fraction of $f_{\rm esc}^{\rm Ly\alpha }=0.68\pm 0.30$ . This large $f_{\rm esc}^{\rm Ly\alpha }$ value is explained by the low H i column density in the interstellar medium which is consistent with full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the Lyα line, FWHM(Lyα) = 212 ± 32 km s –1 , significantly narrower than those of small EW 0 (Lyα) LAEs. Based on the stellar evolution models, our observational constraints of the large EW 0 (Lyα), the small β, and the rest-frame He ii EW imply that at least a half of our large EW 0 (Lyα) LAEs would have young stellar ages of 20 Myr and very low metallicities of Z 〈 0.02 Z regardless of the star formation history.
    Print ISSN: 0035-8711
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-2966
    Topics: Physics
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