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  • 1
    ISSN: 0016-7835
    Keywords: Key words High-resolution dating ; 230Thex constant flux models ; Sediment focusing ; Sediment winnowing ; Particle flux reconstruction
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract  High-resolution records of the natural radionuclide 230Th were measured in sediments from the eastern Atlantic sector of the Antarctic circumpolar current to obtain a detailed reconstruction of the sedimentation history of this key area for global climate change during the late Quaternary. High-resolution dating rests on the assumption that the 230Thex flux to the sediments is constant. Short periods of drastically increased sediment accumulation rates (up to a factor of 8) were determined in the sediments of the Antarctic zone during the climate optima at the beginning of the Holocene and the isotope stage 5e. By comparing expected and measured accumulation rate of 230Thex, lateral sediment redistribution was quantified and vertical particle rain rates originating from the surface water above were calculated. We show that lateral contributions locally were up to 6.5 times higher than the vertical particle rain rates. At other locations only 15% of the expected vertical particle rain rate were deposited.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0016-7835
    Keywords: Key words Manganese nodules ; Thorium dating ; Uranium isotopes ; Peru basin ; TIMS
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract  Thorium- and uranium isotopes were measured in a diagenetic manganese nodule from the Peru basin applying alpha- and thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). Alpha-counting of 62 samples was carried out with a depth resolution of 0.4 mm to gain a high-resolution 230Thexcess profile. In addition, 17 samples were measured with TIMS to obtain precise isotope concentrations and isotope ratios. We got values of 0.06–0.59 ppb (230Th), 0.43-1.40 ppm (232Th), 0.09–0.49 ppb (234U) and 1.66–8.24 ppm (238U). The uranium activity ratio in the uppermost samples (1–6 mm) and in two further sections in the nodule at 12.5±1.0 mm and 27.3–33.5 mm comes close to the present ocean water value of 1.144±0.004. In two other sections of the nodule, this ratio is significantly higher, probably reflecting incorporation of diagenetic uranium. The upper 25 mm section of the Mn nodule shows a relatively smooth exponential decrease in the 230Thexcess concentration (TIMS). The slope of the best fit yields a growth rate of 110 mm/Ma up to 24.5 mm depth. The section from 25 to 30.3 mm depth shows constant 230Thexcess concentrations probably due to growth rates even faster than those in the top section of the nodule. From 33 to 50 mm depth, the growth rate is approximately 60 mm/Ma. Two layers in the nodule with distinct laminations (11–15 and 28–33 mm depth) probably formed during the transition from isotopic stage 8 to 7 and in stage 5e, respectively. The Mn/Fe ratio shows higher values during interglacials 5 and 7, and lower ones during glacials 4 and 6. A comparison of our data with data from adjacent sediment cores suggests (a) a variable supply of hydrothermal Mn to sediments and Mn nodules of the Peru basin or (b) suboxic conditions at the water sediment interface during periods with lower Mn/Fe ratios.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0016-7835
    Keywords: Key words Ontong Java Plateau ; Thorium-230 ; Barium ; Productivity ; Lysocline ; Sediment focusing ; Vertical mass accumulation rate
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract  We discuss geochemical proxies, reflecting processes of primary productivity, CaCO3 dissolution, and sediment redistribution in a piston core (RNDB 74P) from the Ontong Java Plateau. Due to the shallow water depth, biogenic carbonate is well preserved and a very good δ18O stratigraphy is available down to isotopic stage 11. 230Thex gives evidence that the sediment accumulation pattern is driven mainly by processes of sediment focusing or winnowing. Due to the constant production of 230Th in the water column, the bulk sediment accumulation rates could be corrected for the particle rain deriving from the water column above. The 230Thex 0/CaCO3 ratio reflects the well-known Pacific CaCO3 preservation pattern with ice growth dissolution spikes and deglacial preservation spikes. The record of the grain size fraction 〉63 μm supports these results. The downcore concentrations and accumulation rates of barium (Ba) are on a higher level during interglacials and show several peaks. Normalization of Ba with 230Thex 0 delivers a more uniform level of the Ba accumulation rates throughout the core. This pattern suggests a constantly higher biological productivity (nearly tenfold) in this area throughout the past 200 kyr compared with an open ocean environment. Barium peaks observed at the climatic transitions 2/1 and 6/5 and in stage 5 are in contrast to a predicted reduction of interglacial productivity at this location. A possible explanation might be the onset of the modern circulation pattern. The transition from Ba-enriched deep water to lower contents in the Atlantic might have resulted in an enhanced deposition of Ba in the Pacific.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0016-7835
    Keywords: Key words Ferromanganese crusts ; Phosphatization ; Paleoceanographic events ; NE Atlantic ; Mediterranean outflow water ; Messinian salinity crisis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract  Hydrogenetic ferromanganese crusts reflect the chemical conditions of the seawater from which they formed. Fine-scale geochemical analysis of crust layers in combination with age determinations can therefore be used to investigate paleoceanographic changes which are recorded in geochemical gradients in the crusts. At Tropic seamount (off northwest Africa), uniform crust growth influenced by terrigenous input from the African continent occurred during approximately the past 12 Ma. Phosphatization of these crusts is minor. In contrast, crusts from Lion seamount, located between Madeira and the Portuguese coast, display a much more variable growth history. A pronounced increase in Ni, Cu, and Zn is observed in some intervals of the crusts, which probably reflects increased surface productivity. A thick older phosphatized generation occurs in many samples. Hydrographic profiles indicate that Mediterranean outflow water (MOW) may play an important role in the composition of these crusts. 10Be dating of one sample confirms that the interruption of the MOW during the Messinian salinity crisis (6.2–5 Ma ago) resulted in changes in element composition. Sr-isotope dating of the apatite phase of the old crust generation has been carried out to obtain a minimum age for the older generation of Atlantic crusts and to determine whether crust phosphatization in the Atlantic can be related to phosphatization episodes recorded in Pacific crusts. The preliminary data show that the old phosphatized crust generation might be as old as approximately 30–40 Ma.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Macmillan Magazines Ltd.
    Nature 392 (1998), S. 347-348 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] We propose a new method for computing the ratio of the isotopes carbon-14 to carbon-12 in deep water from the past, and for testing the results derived from the normal method of age difference between benthic and planktic foraminifera in deep-sea sediments. Our method involves measuring ...
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  • 6
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    Elsevier
    In:  Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 149 . pp. 353-360.
    Publication Date: 2017-02-13
    Description: Here we present the first high precision 231Protactinium measurements in a manganese crust applying thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) using the double filament technique. The detection limit using TIMS is at least one order of magnitude lower, the statistical uncertainty 6–8 times better than for α-spectrometry. Thus, older sections of manganese crust VA13/2 from the Northern Equatorial Pacific could be measured precisely for their 231Pa activity. Our results reveal significant variations in 231Paxs activity for the last 150 ka which corroborate existing α-spectrometric data. If the growth rate was constant between 0 and 450 ka, the protactinium flux from the water column into manganese encrustations must have been variable. Thus, 231Paxs is not suitable for dating marine Mn/Fe deposits.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2016-11-14
    Description: The reconstruction of geomagnetic field intensity variations during the last 200 kyr from paleomagnetic data is at present the subject of numerous studies and major debate. There is currently no generally accepted record. Here we present a global stacked record of (230Thex-normalized)10Be deposition in marine sediments representing relative variations in 10Be production rate which are translated into field intensity variations. The record shows major periods during which the field intensity was between 10% and 40% of the present day value; namely 30–42, 60–75, 85–110 and 180–192 kyr B.P. Our results are compared to independently derived paleomagnetic studies and Th/U calibrations of 14C dates on corals. During most of the observed period the geomagnetic field intensity was weaker than today, resulting in an overall 30% reduced value for the last 200 kyr.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2016-05-25
    Description: Oceanic and atmospheric circulation patterns varied considerably during the Tertiary and Quaternary and influenced the geochemical cycles of elements in seawater. We report the first resolution lead and neodymium isotopic record of such changes at a high time resolution in two depths profiles from a hydrogenous FeMn crust. The crust, Va13-2, is located in the central Pacific (146°W, 9°25′N, 4830 m) and has previously been dated by 230Th and 10Be. The first profile was drilled with a sample time resolution of ∼3 kyr and allows evaluation of short-term changes to lead and neodymium sources to central Pacific seawater over the last 400 kyr (marine δ18O stages 2 to 11). Longer-term changes were monitored at lower time resolution in a second profile to an age of 10 Ma. Short-term variations in lead and neodymium isotope ratios are resolved in the high resolution profile (0 to 400 kyr). Superimposed on the short-term variations is a secular decrease in Full-size image (〈1 K) ratios beginning at ∼130 kyr in marine δ18O stage 5, implying a change in the lead sources to the central Pacific. Lead and neodymium isotopic compositions indicate an increased influence from Central American eolian sources to Pacific seawater at this time. Lead isotopes are found to be statistically more variable during interglacial than glacial periods. These observations are supported by the greater eolian dust fluxes found in sediment cores from the equatorial Pacific during interglacial stages. The most important paleoceanographic event of the last 10 Ma to affect Pacific seawater was the closure of the Panama gateway. Changes in lead and neodymium isotopes in Val3-2 during the last 10 Ma occurred along with gradual closure of the Panama straits. However, these changes did not occur in tandem: while neodymium isotope ratios increase between 10 and 8 Ma, lead isotope ratios remain constant. In contrast, the period 7 to 1 Ma is marked by a secular increase in lead isotope ratios but nearly constant neodymium. These changes are consistent with a source of radiogenic lead and neodymium conveyed by the Circumpolar Current into the Pacific, rather than by the Panama gateway, and involve 20 to 40% Southern Component Water (SCW) input of lead and neodymium. Modelling of lead and neodymium isotopic mixing between the different water masses involved in generating Pacific deep waters lead us to the following conclusions: (1) Small variations in the strength and composition of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) have a relatively minor effect on the amounts of lead and neodymium from SCW contributing to the Pacific and (2) an enhanced SCW flow with an open isthmus of Panama, as suggested by General Circulation Models (GCM), requires a corresponding reduction in NADW Pb and Nd contributions to SCW. The general agreement between the isotopic compositions of surface layers of Mn nodules, integrated over such long time intervals, and those of present-day bottom waters at their respective locations show that the present-day ocean circulation pattern has dominated through the Pleistocene. Our study of Mn crust Va13-2 shows that shorter-term changes in lead and neodymium isotope ratios can be resolved, provided that such crusts are sampled at an appropriate time resolution.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1572-8854
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1437-3262
    Keywords: Ferromanganese crusts ; Phosphatization ; Paleoceanographic events ; NE Atlantic ; Mediterranean outflow water ; Messinian salinity crisis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Hydrogenetic ferromanganese crusts reflect the chemical conditions of the sewater from which they formed. Fine-scale geochemical analysis of crust layers in combination with age determinations can therefore be used to investigate paleoceanographic changes which are recorded in geochemical gradients in the crusts. At Tropic seamount (off northwest Africa), uniform crust growth influenced by terrigenous input from the African continent occurred during approximately the past 12 Ma. Phosphatization of these crusts is minor. In contrast, crusts from Lion seamount, located between Madeira and the Portuguese coast, display a much more variable growth history. A pronounced increase in Ni, Cu, and Zn is observed in some intervals of the crusts, which probably reflects increased surface productivity. A thick older phosphatized generation occurs in many samples. Hydrographic profiles indicate that Mediterranean outflow water (MOW) may play an important role in the composition of these crusts.10Be dating of one sample confirms that the interruption of the MOW during the Messinian salinity crisis (6.2–5 Ma ago) resulted in changes in element composition. Sr-isotope dating of the apatite phase of the old crust generation has been carried out to obtain a minimum age for the older generation of Atlantic crusts and to determine whether crust phosphatization in the Atlantic can be related to phosphatization episodes recorded in Pacific crusts. The preliminary data show that the old phosphatized crust generation might be as old as approximately 30–40 Ma.
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