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  • Organic Chemistry  (11)
  • molecular devices
  • Self-assembly
  • 1975-1979  (11)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 0018-019X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Polyaza-polyoxa macrobicyclic ligands: its synthesis and metal complexes.The synthesis of the polyaza-polyoxa macrobicyclic ligands 1-4 is described. They form complexes with a variety of metal cations, transition metal cations as well as alkali and alkaline-earth cations. These complexes may be formulated as cation inclusion complexes, cryptates, in which the cation is contained in the intramolecular cavity. The properties of the complexes are described. An especially interesting feature is that these ligands, polymines of macrobicyclic topology, provide a means of trapping transition metal cations inside a molecular cavity; thus they impose coordination geometries and may modify the spectral and redox properties of the cations.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0018-019X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: An ab initio theoretical study of all fifteen fully staggered conformations of aminodihydroxymethane, CH(OH)2NH2 has been performed. Optimization of the C—O and C—N bond lengths, population analyses and orbital localisation reveal the presence of marked conformation dependent stereoelectronic effects which influence bond lengths and overlap populations. These effects may be parametrized as a function of number and nature of antiperiplanar (app) oriented electronic lone pairs (1p) and polar bonds. In a Y—C—X fragment an app orientation between a lone pair on Y and the C—X bond increases the length and weakens the C—X bond, shortens and strengthens the C—Y bond. Thus a C—X (X = O, N) bond of CH(OH)2NH2 is longest and weakest when: (i) it is app to two vicinal lp's; (ii) the X 1p's are not app to a vicinal polar bond; (iii) the conformation of the molecule has as many axially oriented lp's as possible. Results (i) and (ii) agree with a simple hyperconjugation picture involving interaction between an electronic 1p and an app oriented antibonding bond orbital σ* (C—X). Bond properties, relative energies and effects on reactivity of the tetrahedral species are discussed, as well as their relations to experimental results on the cleavage of tetrahedral intermediates and to enzyme catalysis.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0018-019X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The optically active macrotricyclic cryptands 1 and 2, containing the binaphthyl group as chiral unit, have been synthesized. These compounds contain lateral cavities which may serve as anchoring sites for polar groups of the substrates and a central, chiral cavity large enough for including more or les completely the bulk of a molecular ion. Their complexation properties towards molecular ions give evidence for the occurrence of two types of processes: (a) direct complexation of primary ammonium cations, like phenylethyl ammonium chloride, occurs with either 1 or 2; (b) cascade binding, involving first complexation of an alkali cation followed by pairing with a molecular anion, takes place with 2. Process (b) may be considered as a metallo-receptor model system where binding of an anionic substrate is dependent on initial binding of a cation. In both cases (a) and (b) weak resolution of chiral racemic substrates has been observed by extraction and transport (through a bulk liquid membrane) experiments. This indicates that in the complex the bulk of the substrate should be located close to the chiral unit and therefore more or less in the central cavity. In the case of cryptand 2, the resolution achieved for the (±)-mandelate anion is markedly affected by the nature of the complexed cation.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0018-019X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The synthesis of a series of polyguanidinium salts of potential interest as anion complexones is described. Among the various synthetic methods investigated, the polyguanidinium salts were found to be most conveniently prepared from polyamines via polynitroguanidine intermediates. The complexation of phosphate and carboxylate anions by these complexones and by related polyammonium salts were studied by analysis of pH-metric titration data. The ligands studied from relatively stable complexes (log Ks = 2.0-4.0 for PO43- in water) which also present good selectivities in some cases. Both the stability and the selectivity of complexation are primarily governed by electrostatic forces and thus depend on charge accumulation in the interacting species; structural effects are also observed. Since the binding is primarily electrostatic, polyammonium salts from more stable complexes (at a given charge) than do polyguanidinium salts. However, whereas the complexation properties of the latter are independent of pH, the complexes of the former are observed only in the limited ranges of pH where both the protonated polyamine and the anion of interest can coexist. The polycationic ligands may, in principle, form chelate type anion complexes. Comparison with the corresponding single binding sites reveals an increase in complexation constant of about two or three orders of magnitude; this may be considered as a thermodynamic indication of a chelate effect for the polydentate ligands (by analogy with the well known effects displayed by cation complexones); however, structural data on the formation of chelate ‘rings’ are not yet available. The nature of the complexes and the prospects of anion complexones in various fields are discussed.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0018-019X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Two efficient methods are described for the selective modification of all six primary hydroxyl groups of α-cyclodextrin (α-CD, 11). One, using an indirect strategy, involves protection of all 18 hydroxyl functions as benzoate esters, followed by selective deprotection of the six primary alcohol groups. The other, using a direct strategy, involves selective activation of the primary hydroxyl groups via a bulky triphenylphosphonium salt, which is then substituted by azide anion as the reaction proceeds. A number of modified α-cyclodextrin derivatives have been prepared and fully characterized, among which are: the useful intermediate α-cyclodextrin-dodeca (2, 3) benzoate (3); hexakis (6-amino-6-deoxy)-α-cyclodextrin hexahydrochloride (7); hexakis (6-amino-6-deoxy)-dodeca (2, 3)-O-methyl-α-cyclodextrin hexahydrochloride (9), hexa (6)-O-methyl-α-cyclodextrin (13). The direct substitution is shown to be even more efficient for β-cyclodextrin (16), giving the heptakis (6-azido-6-deoxy)-β-CD-tetradeca (2, 3)acetate (17), while the indirect strategy fails. The compounds are characterized by extensive use of 13C- and 1H-NMR. spectroscopy. The steric and statistical problems of selective polysubstitution reactions for the cyclodextrins are discussed, and possible reasons for the observed differences in reactivity between α- and β-cyclodextrins are examined.The dodecabenzoate 3 presents a very marked solvent effect on physical properties (IR. and NMR. spectra, optical rotation); the effects observed may be ascribed to an unusually strong intramolecular network of hydrogen bonds which severely distorts the α-cyclodextrin ring and lowers the symmetry from six-fold to three-fold.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Helvetica Chimica Acta 58 (1975), S. 905-917 
    ISSN: 0018-019X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: 14N-NMR. measurements using the Fourier Transform technique are presented and compared to C. W. experiments. The F. T. technique is especially advantageous for relaxation time measurements. However, since 14N-nuclei may have widely different relaxation times, it is often not possible to have optimal gain in sensitivity (as compared to C. W. measurements) in a single F. T. experiment for different 14N-nuclei contained in the same sample. Different experiments have to be performed, optimizing the spectrometer parameters for each 14N-resonance of appreciably different linewidth.The technique is applied to three different problems. 14N-relaxation in symmetrical ammonium salts is shown to arise from reorientation of the water dipoles. The use of a double spin-probe, 13C-14N, allows the determination of the electric field gradients in cyclic ammonium salts. The electronic distribution is especially distorted from tetrahedral symmetry in the highly strained N, N-dimethyl-aziridinium cation. Finally, electric and dynamic effects in ion pairing may be studied as shown on the case of tetrabutylammonium iodide in water and in benzene.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0018-019X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The enthalpies and entropies of complexation of alkali and alkaline-earth metal cations by several macrobicyclic ligands have been obtained from calorimetric measurements and from the previously determined stability constants [2]. Both enthalpy and entropy changes play an important role in the stability and selectivity of the complexes. Particularly noteworthy are the large enthalpies and the negative entropies of complexation obtained for the alkali cation complexes (Na+, K+, Rb+ and Cs+ cryptates). The Sr2+ and Ba2+ as well as [Li+ ⊂ 2.1.1]For use of the symbols see [2].and [Na+ ⊂ 2.2.1] cryptates are of the enthalpy dominant type with also a favourable entropy change. The Ca2+ and [Li+ ⊂ 2.2.1] cryptates are entirely entropy stabilized with about zero heat of reaction. The high stability of the macrobicyclic complexes as compared to the macromonocylcic ones, the cryptate effect, is of enthalpic origin. The enthalpies of complexation display selectivity peaks, as do the stabilities, whereas the entropy changes do not. The high M2+/M+ selectivities found in terms of free energy, may be reversed when enthalpy is considered in view of the very different role played by the entropy term for M2+ and M+ cations. The enthalpies and entropies of ligation show that whereas the cryptate anions are similar in terms of entropy irrespective of which cation is included, the ligands, despite being more rigid than the hydration shell, are nevertheless able to adjust to some extent to the cation. This conclusion agrees with published X-rays data. The origin of the enthalpies and entropies of complexation is discussed in terms of structural features of the ligands and of solvation effects.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0018-019X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The cylindrical macrotricyclic ligands 1-3 yield inclusion complexes, [3]-cryptates, with various metal cations. NMR. studies indicate the successive formation of a mononuclear and a binuclear complex. The former is probably unsymmetrical undergoing fast intramolecular cation exchange; the latter is symmetrical, with a cation located on each macrocyclic subunit of the macrotricyclic system. A heteronuclear (Ag2+, Pb2+) complex has been observed. The stability constants of the mononuclear and binuclear alkali and alkaline-earth cation complexes of ligands 1-3 have been determined by potentiometric methods. The stabilities are comparable to those of the complexes of the isolated macrocyclic subunit 5b. The binuclear complexes are almost as stable as the mononuclear one even in highly charged species like for instance the complex of ligand 2 with two barium cations. Cylindrical macrotricyclic ligands are topologically well suited for the designed positioning of two metal cations in a binuclear inclusion complex.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0018-019X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: We have measured the stability constants of the cryptate complexes formed by ligands 1-4 with alkali, alkaline-earth, transition metal and toxic heavy metal cations. Stabilities and selectivities of complexation of the alkali and alkaline-earth cations are less pronounced in 1-4 than in the parent compounds 5 and 6 and decrease as the number of nitrogen sites increase. Remarkable complexation properties are found towards transition metal and toxic heavy metal cations. The intramolecular cavity of ligands 1-3 is too large for small cations like Co2+, Ni2+, Zn2+ so that the complexes formed are comparatively weak; however these cations are strongly complexed by ligand 4 whose intramolecular cavity has a much smaller size, compatible with their ionic radius. On the other hand, ligands 1-4 all form highly stable cryptates with Cd2+, Hg2+, Pb2+. Thus by the combined operation of the two structural parameters, cavity size and nature of the binding sites, cryptands 2 et 3 present very high selectivities for the complexation of these toxic heavy metal cations with respect to the biologically important ones Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Zn2+. The selectivities of ligand 2 for Cd2+, Hg2+ and Pb2+ with respect to Zn2+ are as high as 106, 1018 and 109 respectively. They are much more pronounced than those of previously known complexing agents. Cryptands like 2 and 3 thus present a unique selectivity sequence of special interest in detoxication (decorporation, depollution). Further structural elaboration may allow to design ligands which present a given selectivity pattern of potential use in “cryptatotherapy” and “environment pollution control”. The results also provide evidence for the existence, at low pH, of protonated complexes which probably participate in an acid catalysed process for dissociation of the complexes.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0018-019X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: An ab initio study of α-seleno carbanions show that they are subject to appreciable polarization and stereoelectronic effects. Like in α-thia carbanions, the equatorial e forms are more stable than the axial a forms, one of the stabilizing contributions being the conformation dependent (C-lone pair, σ* Se—Z) interaction. The carbanion stabilizing effect of the α-Se atom is about 3 kcal/mol larger than that of the sulfur analog. As in the case of the sulfur no specific effect of the d orbitals is found.
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