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  • SOLAR PHYSICS  (614)
  • 1980-1984  (324)
  • 1975-1979  (290)
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: Absorption features from the 8 micron SiO fundamental (upsilon = 1-0) and hot bands (upsilon = 2-1) have been observed in sunspots at sub-Doppler resolution using a ground-based tunable diode laser heterodyne spectrometer. The observed line widths suggest an upper limit of 0.5 km/s for the microturbulent velocity in sunspot umbrae. Since the silicon monoxide abundance is very sensitive to sunspot temperature, the measured equivalent widths permit an unambiguous determination of the temperature-pressure relation in the upper layers of the umbral atmosphere. In the region of SiO line formation (log P sub g = 3.0-4.5), the results support the sunspot model suggested by Stellmacher and Wiehr (1970).
    Keywords: SOLAR PHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 269; June 1
    Format: text
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: A decrease in the solar radius is determined using the technique of Dunham and Dunham (1973), in which timed observations are made just inside the path edges. When the method is applied to the solar eclipses of 1715, 1976, and 1979, the solar radius for 1715 is 0.34 + or - 0.2 arc second larger than the recent values, with no significant change between 1976 and 1979. The duration of totality is examined as a function of distance from the edges of the path. Corrections to the radius of the sun derived from observations of the 1976 and 1979 eclipses by the International Occultation Timing Association are also presented.
    Keywords: SOLAR PHYSICS
    Type: Science; 210; Dec. 12
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2011-08-16
    Description: Skylab/ATM observations of a disappearing filament near the center of the solar disk are described using XUV and H-alpha spectroheliograms, X-ray filterheliograms, and photospheric magnetograms. The temperature of the coronal plasma as the filament disappeared is estimated to have been in excess of 6 million K, and it is noted that the time history of the soft X-ray and microwave fluxes displayed the gradual-rise-and-fall (GRF) signature, suggesting that the present event may have properties that are characteristic of a wide class of long-duration X-ray and radio events. A comparison with other spatially resolved long-duration X-ray events indicates that all such long-lived bursts involve transients in the outer corona and that some two-thirds of them involve either the eruption or the major activation of a prominence. It is also found that long-lived events are characterized by the appearance of new emission loops in the lower corona during the declining phase of the X-ray emission and that these loops sometimes disappear after the X-ray events and sometimes remain indefinitely.
    Keywords: SOLAR PHYSICS
    Type: Solar Physics; 45; Dec. 197
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The decomposition of solar oscillations into their constituent normal modes requires a knowledge of both the spatial and temporal variation of the perturbation to the Sun's surface. The task is especially difficult when only limited spatial information is available. Observations of the limb darkening function, for example, are probably sensitive to too large a number of modes to permit most of the modes to be identified in a power spectrum of measurements at only a few points on the limb, unless the results are combined with other data. A procedure was considered by which the contributions from quite small groups of modes to spatially well resolved data obtained at any instant can be extracted from the remaining modes. Combining these results with frequency information then permits the modes to be identified, at least if their frequencies are low enough to ensure that modes of high degree do not contribute substantially to the signal.
    Keywords: SOLAR PHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.26:173667 , NASA-CR-173667
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Relative abundances of energetic nuclei in the 4 July 1974 solar event are presented. The results show a marked enhancement of abundances that systematically increase with nuclear charge numbers in the range of the observation, 6 less than or equal to Z less than or equal to 26 for energies above 15 MeV/nucleon. While such enhancements are commonly seen below 10 MeV/nucleon, most observations at higher energies are found to be consistent with solar system abundances. The energy spectrum of oxygen is observed to be significantly steeper than most other solar events studied in this energy region. It is proposed that these observations are characteristic of particle populations at energies approximately 1 MeV/nucleon, and that the anomalous features observed here may be the result of the high energy extension of such a population that is commonly masked by other processes or populations that might occur in larger solar events.
    Keywords: SOLAR PHYSICS
    Type: X-662-76-293 , NASA-TM-X-71258
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Low energy electron measurements collected by ISEE 1 reveal the frequent presence of field-aligned fluxes of few hundred eV electrons in he geomagnetic tail lobes. In the northern tail lobe these electrons are most prominent when the interplanetary magnetic field is directed away from the Sun. This characteristic helps identify the electrons as polar rain electrons. By mapping the tail lobe velocity distribution function into the solar wind, previous suggestions that the polar rain is indeed of solar wind origin and is due to the access of electrons to the magnetotail lobe were confirmed. It was demonstrated that the moe energetic component of the polar rain is composed of electrons from the solar wind strahl - a field-aligned component of the solar wind which is difficult to measure but which is thought to be caused by the collisionless transit of hundred eV electrons from the inner solar corona to 1 AU.
    Keywords: SOLAR PHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.15:86150 , NASA-TM-86150
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Low noise high spectral resolution observations of two pure rotation transitions of OH from the solar photosphere were obtained. The observations were obtained using the technique of optically null-balanced infrared heterodyne spectroscopy, and consist of center-to-limb line profiles of a v=1 and a v=0 transition near 12 microns. These lines should be formed in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE), and are diagnostics of the thermal structure of the upper photosphere. The v=0 R22 (24.5)e line strengthens at the solar limb, in contradiction to the predictions of current one dimensional photospheric models. Data for this line support a two dimensional model in which horizontal thermal fluctuations of order + or - 800K occur in the region Tau (sub 5000) approximately .001 to .01. This thermal bifurcation may be maintained by the presence of magnetic flux tubes, and may be related to the solar limb extensions observed in the 30 to 200 micron region.
    Keywords: SOLAR PHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-86128 , NAS 1.15:86128
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  • 8
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The acceleration of solar flare protons is considered by cyclotron damping of intense Alfven wave turbulence in a magnetic trap. The energy diffusion coefficient is computed for a near-isotropic distribution of super-Alfvenic protons and a steady-state solution for the particle spectrum is found for both transit-time and diffusive losses out of the ends of the trap. The acceleration time to a characteristic energy approximately 20 Mev/nucl can be as short as 10 sec. On the basis of phenomenological arguments an omega/2 frequency dependence for the Alfven wave spectrum is inferred. The correlation time of the turbulence lies in the range .0005 less than tau/corr less than .05s.
    Keywords: SOLAR PHYSICS
    Type: SU-SUIPR-739
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2017-10-02
    Description: A radio telescope designed to exploit the interplanetary scintillation (IPS) technique and locate, map, and track solar wind disturbances which result in geomagnetic disturbances, thereby providing a forecast capability, is described. Preliminary results from operation of the telescope include: (1) evidence for a precursor signal in the IPS activity with a 1-2 day lead time with respect to density enhancements which frequently give rise to geomagnetic activity; (2) detection of a spectral broadening signature which also serves as a precursor of geomagnetic activity; (3) out-of-the-ecliptic plasma density enhancements which were not detected by near-Earth, ecliptic plane spacecraft; (4) detection of 12 corotating density enhancements;(5) detection of over 80 sources which give detectable scintillation of which 45 have been used for detailed synoptic analysis and 9 for spectral analysis; and (6) measurement of 0-lag coefficient of 0.56 between density and IPS activity enhancements.
    Keywords: SOLAR PHYSICS
    Type: AGARD Operational Modelling of the Aerospace Propagation Environ., Vol. 1 and 2; 17 p
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2017-10-02
    Description: The disk boundaries of coronal holes have been determined from He II 304 A spectroheliograms which were taken with the Naval Research Laboratory slitless XUV spectrograph during the manned Skylab missions. These boundaries are plotted by Carrington rotation as synoptic charts in both the standard rectangular as well as polar-view projections. The periods of time for which boundaries were determined are 24 May through 28 June 1973 (first manned Skylab mission), 2 August through 24 September 1973 (second manned mission), and 21 November 1973 through 2 February 1974 (third manned mission); the Carrington rotations covered (in part or totally) are 1601 and 02; 160r, 1604, 05 and 06; and 1608, 09 and 10, respectively.
    Keywords: SOLAR PHYSICS
    Type: PB-247916-51 , NASA-CR-147224 , UAG-51 , NOAA-75120901
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