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  • 1975-1979  (3)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2016-11-24
    Description: A model simulation of the climate during Maunder Minimum (MM) (1645–1715) was performed using the Freie Universität Berlin Climate Middle Atmosphere Model (FUB-CMAM). A multi-year equilibrium integration with prescribed solar insolation, atmospheric composition and sea surface temperatures (SSTs) for MM conditions was compared with a present-day (PD) simulation. We find that during MM the stratosphere was significantly warmer (up to 3 K) than during PD, and dynamically more disturbed in winter. The warming is due to the dominant effect of the lower atmospheric CO2 concentration during MM, which leads to a reduced emission of long-wave radiation, and compensates the cooling due to the reduced solar irradiance. The troposphere was about 1–1.5 K cooler in the annual mean during MM. The global mean surface air temperature decreased by 0.86 K. Northern hemisphere winters were on average characterized by cooler and drier weather over the northern parts of the continents, with an increase in precipitation in the southern parts. These climate anomalies are shown to be related to a shift in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) towards a predominantly low phase during MM. The simulated climate anomalies are in very good agreement with reconstructions from proxy-data. Changes in the dynamical coupling between the troposphere and stratosphere were found in the MM simulation, indicating the importance of the stratosphere for climate change.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Zeitschrift für anorganische Chemie 437 (1977), S. 269-274 
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Formation and Constitution of a Heterocyclic Phosphorus BetaineThe zwitter ionic 2,2,6,6-tetrakis(diethylamido)-4,4-Dioxo-1,3,5,2λ5,4λ5,6λ5-azadioxatriphosphorin (3) is formed as a cristalline byproduct in the reaction of octaethyl imidodiphosphoryl tetramide derivatives, {[(Et2N)2P(O)]2N}Y (Y = H, Na, SiMe3), with phosphorus(V) chlorides (PCl5, POCl3, ClP(O)(OEt)2). It is obtained from the primary reaction products in a secondary reaction. Its constitution was revealed by 31P-n.m.r.-spectroscopy and by synthesis of the 15N-labeled compound. From O-Diethoxyphosphorylated octaethyl imidodiphosphoryl tetramide the compound 3 is obtained only in presence of water traces and agents providing HCl like e. g. ClSiMe3 or ClP(O)(OEt)2.
    Notes: Bei der Umsetzung von Octaäthylimidodiphosphoryltetramid-Derivaten, {[(Et2N)2P(O)]2N}Y (Y = H, Na, SiMe3), mit Phosphor(V)-chloriden (PCl5, POCl3, ClP(O)(OEt)2) entsteht aus den primären Reaktionsprodukten in einer Folgereaktion das zwitterionische 2,2,6,6-Tetrakis(diäthylamido)-4,4-Dioxo-1,3,5,2λ5,4λ5,6λ5-azadioxatriphosphorin (3) als kristallines Nebenprodukt. Die Konstitutionsermittlung erfolgte mittels 31P-NMR-Spektroskopie und durch Synthese der 15N-markierten Verbindung. Aus dem O-Diäthoxyphosphorylierten Octaäthylimidodiphosphoryltetramid bildet sich 3 nur in Gegenwart von Wasserspuren und HCl-liefernden Reagenzien, wie ClSiMe3 oder ClP(O)(OEt)2.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Investigations on the Phosphorylation of Imidodiphosphoryl DerivativesDerivatives of esters and octaalkylamides of imidodiphosphoric acid, {[X2P(O)]2N}Y (X = OR, NR2; Y = H, Na, SiMe3, MgBr), react with phosphorus(V) chlorides exclusively under formation of O-phosphorylated products. No derivatives of nitridotriphosphoric acid are formed. O-Diethoxyphosphorylated phosphazenes, X2P(O)—N=PX2-O—P(O)(OEt)2, are obtained by using diethoxyphosphoryl chloride, (EtO)2P(O)Cl. Octaalkylamides react with PCl5 to form tetrachlorophosphonium compounds containing the PCl4 group chelate-like surrounded by the octaalkyl imidodiphosphoryl tetramide anion. The product of the reaction of octaalkyl imidodiphosphoryl tetramide sodium and POCl3 seems to have an analogous constitutions.
    Notes: Derivate von Estern und Octaalkylamiden der Imidodiphosphorsäure, {[X2P(O)]2N}Y (X = OR, NR2; Y = H, Na, SiMe3, MgBr), reagieren mit Phosphor(V)-chloriden ausschließlich unter Bildung O-phosphorylierter Produkte. Es entstehen keine Derivate der Nitridotriphosphorsäure. Mit Diäthoxyphosphorylchlorid, (EtO)2P(O)Cl, bilden sich O-Diäthoxyphosphorylierte Phosphazene, X2P(O)—N=PX2-O—P(O)(OEt)2. Die Octaalkylamide reagieren mit PCl5 zu Tetrachlorophosphoniumverbindungen, in denen die PCl4-Gruppe vom Octaalkylimidodiphosphoryltetramid-Anion chelatartig umgeben ist (IV). Eine analoge Konstitution scheint das Reaktionsprodukt von Octaäthylimidodiphosphoryltetramid-Natrium mit POCl3 zu haben.
    Additional Material: 2 Tab.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: On the Constitution of the Trimethylsilyl Derivatives of Imidodiphosphoryl CompoundsEsters and dialkylamides of the imidodiphosphoric acid react with hexamethyl-disilazane to form trimethylsilyl derivatives. 1H-, 29Si-, and 31P-NMR data show the trimethylsilyl group to be bond to oxygen with rapid reversible exchange between both phosphoryloxygen atoms.
    Notes: Ester und Dialkylamide der Imidodiphosphorsäure reagieren mit Hexamethyldisilazan zu den Trimethylsilylderivaten. Aus 1H-, 29Si- und 31P-NMR-Daten folgt, daß die Trimethylsilylgruppe über Sauerstoff gebunden ist und einem schnellen reversiblen Austausch zwischen den beiden Phosphorylsauerstoffatomen unterliegt.
    Additional Material: 1 Tab.
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2008-04-09
    Description: The objective of this study is the scale dependent evaluation of precipitation forecasts of the Lokal-Modell (LM) from the German Weather Service in relation to dynamical and cloud parameters. For this purpose the newly designed Dynamic State Index (DSI) is correlated with clouds and precipitation. The DSI quantitatively describes the deviation and relative distance from a stationary and adiabatic solution of the primitive equations. A case study and statistical analysis of clouds and precipitation demonstrates the availability of the DSI as a dynamical threshold parameter. This confirms the importance of imbalances of the atmospheric flow field, which dynamically induce the generation of rainfall.
    Print ISSN: 1680-7340
    Electronic ISSN: 1680-7359
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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