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  • 1
    ISSN: 0030-4921
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Sum-over-states perturbation and finite perturbation calculations, within the ‘Solvaton’ model, are presented for the variation of some 17O and 19F chemical shifts as a function of the dielectric constant of the medium. In general, the nuclear screening and charge are predicted to increase as the dielectric constant increases. The effects of hydrogen bonding are included by means of minimum energy dimer models in some of the sum-over-states calculations.
    Additional Material: 3 Tab.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Recent sporadic distribution in Japan of Trichophyton mentagrophytes skin infections among laboratory rats or guinea pigs is reported. Six cases of laboratory infection by the fungus in humans who came in direct contact with the affected animals are also presented. Mating experiments with the causative fungi isolated from the animal and human skin lesions revealed that all but one sexually reactive strains belonged to the ‘+’ mating type of Arthroderma vanbreuseghemii. A retrospective epidemiologic study ascertained that most of the affected rats were those derived from the same breeding colony of a certain experimental animal producing-co-operation in Saitama prefecture, where it had been produced by conventional methods of specific pathogen-free parental colony maintained in a barrier system. These two pieces of evidence suggest a possible transmission of the etiologic agent from some healthy carrier or infected hair-droppings in the environment to the breeding colony, during its breeding, or maintenance by the producer.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Ascocarp production byNannizzia otae, VUT 77054‘+’x VUT 77055‘−’, was compared on 8 different (1 keratinous and 7 non-keratinous) agar media. Oatmeal salts agar and diluted Sabouraud dextrose salts agar with or without yeast extract were found to be unsuitable for ascocarp production in this species. In contrast, three different variants of oatmeal salts agar enriched with yeast extract proved to be satisfactory for the same purpose, while oatmeal salts agar with both yeast extract and horsehair powder was not necessarily superior to the former three media in this regard. Niger seed salts agar enriched with yeast extract was the most superior to any other seven media in all of the following respects; i.e., the number of gymnothecia produced per plate, the germination rate of ascospores, and the suppression of sporulation. Asci from the cross VUT 77054‘+’ x VUT 77055‘−’ that yielded abundant fertile gymnothecia on niger seed salts agar with yeast extract were dissected and 51 ascospores were randomly isolated. Of the 51 ascospores, 47 (92%) germinated to form mature colonies. Of the 47 monoascospore F1 progeny back crossed to the parentals, 21 (45%) mated or reacted with the ‘+’ mating type, 18 (38%) did with the ‘−’ mating type, and the remaining 8(17%) were sexually nonreactive. One hundred and twenty-three Japanese isolates ofMicrosporum canis, obtained from human and animal ringworms for the past 12 years, were also crossed with the tester strains ofN. otae on selected 3 of the 8 media to determine their mating type. Out of these 123, 113 (92%) produced fertile gymnothecia in crosses with VUT 77054 ‘+’, 9(7%) were non-reactive, and the only one isolated from human in Osaka city produced fertile gymnothecia in crosses with VUT 77055‘−’. The data suggest thatM. canis (N. otae) exists predominantly as ‘−’ mating type in Japan. A possible explanation for this unequal distribution of mating type is presented.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Forty-five clinical isolates ofMicrosporum gypseum were crossed with the + and − tester strains ofNannizzia gypsea, N. incurvata andN. fulva to determine their mating type. Thirty-two produced fertile gymnothecia when crossed withN. gypsea, of which 13 reacted as + and 19 as −. Ten produced fertile gymnothecia when crossed withN. incurvata, of which 7 reacted as + and 3 as −. The remaining 3 were sterile in all crosses withN. gypsea, N. incurvata andN. fulva. Of these 3, 2 were fluffy, degenerated cultures ofM. gypseum, and the other one appeared to be identical with the discription ofM. gypseum var.vinosum in cultural and morphological characteristics. There was approximately a 1∶1 overall ratio of mating types among a total of 90 clinical isolates ofM. gypseum in Japan on the basis of the above results and the data recently reported in the literature by other Japanese workers. The present results suggest that the ability to cause skin infection of humans by the soil-inhabitating organisms is approximately equal in the mating types and probably independent of sexuality.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis due to E. jeanselmei developed on the sole of a 61 years old Japanese female who was receiving the corticoids therapy for nephrotic syndrome. Although the causative fungus was resistant to 5-fluorocytosine, amphotericin B and ketoconazole, the lesion was successfully treated by surgical excision.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Asci of Arthroderma vanbreuseghemii were investigated by electron microscopy using periodic acid-alkaline bismuth (PABi) staining. At the early stage of ascosporogenesis, PABi-reactive substance was present homogeneously on both the inner and outer tracks of the double membrane system. Immediately after ascospore-delimitation, this substance gradually decreased and ultimately disappeared from the outer track. In contrast, the inner membrane was persistently loaded with the PABi-reactive material. These observations suggest that at this stage the outer membrane of the double membrane system begins to differentiate into the ascospore cell wall, utilizing its carbohydrate constituent.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0021-9304
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: With a view to developing biomaterials for semipermanent substitution, we have studied a composite material constituted with collagen and a synthetic polymer which possesses high tissue compatibility. This collagen - synthetic polymer composite was applied as a support for immobilization of enzymes for the purpose of providing a material surface with biological function. The enzymes, urokinase and trypsin, were successfully bound to the collagen membrane layer which had been activated by acyl azide formation of its carboxyl groups. The enzyme-bearing composite material showed excellent catalytic activity toward a protein substrate as well as a low-molecular-weight synthetic substrate. The immobilized urokinase was characterized enzymatically and compared with native urokinase. The apparent affinity of immobilized urokinase for the substrate was slightly decreased, but its intrinsic kinetic properties were not significantly affected. No decrease in its esterase activity was observed both on repeated use and on long-term storage, and its fibrinolytic activity was stable on heat or disinfection treatment. When this urokinase-bearing composite material was applied into rabbit blood vessels, its in vivo fibrinolytic activity was maintained. Thus, enzyme - collagen - synthetic polymer composites may find wide application for biomaterials and artificial organs as functional biomaterials.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary Nucleoside-5′-triphosphates such as 5′-ATP and 5′-GTP can be produced efficiently and continuously from 3′-mononucleotides such as 3′-AMP and 3′-GMP by a series of processes consisting of two reaction phases using dried cells of Candida sp. N-25-2 (a hydrocarbon assimilating yeast). Moreover, incidentally to the 5′-triphosphates, free uracil is yielded almost stoichiometrically from 3′-CMP and 3′-UMP which, as is well known, are main concomitant products depolymerized from RNA. Uracil is then also available for many usage.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Rabbit anti-rat plasma fibronectin (pFN) causes histamine release from rat mast cells in the presence of complement. Fibronectin (FN) on rat mast cells, as shown by immuno-electron microscopy, is principally localized on cell folds, so they may play a role of attachment in the matrix of connective tissue.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1550-7408
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: By using fluorescent isothiocyanate-conjugated concanavalin A (FITC-Con A), cell surface events were examined under a light microscope during the early period of the conjugation process in Tetrahymena thermophila. Until the two complementary mating types (D-III and IV) were mixed, Con A-binding activities were hardly detected on the cell surface of ciliates. After mixing, however, the FITC-Con A (25 μg/ml) bound especially to the anterior cell surface at the early stage of conjugation, followed by characteristic changes of the Con A-binding pattern and, subsequently, by formation of a bright fluorescent ring around the area of contact between conjugants. Such alterations of FITC-Con A-binding pattern were found to be interrupted or eliminated by cycloheximide (2 μg/ml). These findings are related to the onset and subsequent conjugation in T. thermophila.
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