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  • 1980-1984  (30)
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Surface fatigue tests were conducted with AISI 9310 spur gears using a formulated synthetic tetraester oil (conforming to MIL-L-23699 specifications) as the lubricant containing either sulfur or phosphorus as the EP additive. Four groups of gears were tested. One group of gears tested without an additive in the lubricant acted as the reference oil. In the other three groups either a 0.1 wt % sulfur or phosphorus additive was added to the tetraester oil to enhance gear surface fatigue life. Test conditions included a gear temperature of 334 K (160 F), a maximum Hertz stress of 1.71 GPa (248 000 psi), and a speed of 10,000 rpm. The gears tested with a 0.1 wt % phosphorus additive showed pitting fatigue life 2.6 times the life of gears tested with the reference tetraester based oil. Although fatigue lives of two groups of gears tested with the sulfur additive in the oil showed improvement over the control group gear life, the results, unlike those obtained with the phosphorus oil, were not considered to be statistically significant.
    Keywords: MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
    Type: NAS 1.60:2408 , E-2042 , NASA-TP-2408
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Endurance tests were conducted with four groups of spur gears manufactured from three heats of consumable electrode vacuum melted (CVM) modified Vasco X-2. Endurance tests were also conducted with gears manufactured from CVM AISI 9310. Bench type rolling element fatigue tests were conducted with both materials. Hardness measurements were made to 811 K. There was no statistically significant life difference between the two materials. Life differences between the different heats of modified Vasco X-2 can be attributed to heat treat variation and resultant hardness. Carburization of gear flanks only can eliminate tooth fracture as a primary failure mode for modified Vasco X-2. However, a tooth surface fatigue spall can act as a nucleus of a tooth fracture failure for the modified Vasco X-2.
    Keywords: MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
    Type: NASA-TP-1731 , E-070
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Surface fatigue tests were conducted on two groups of AISI 9310 spur gears. Both groups were manufactured with standard ground tooth surfaces, with the second group subjected to an additional shot peening process on the gear tooth flanks. The gear pitch diameter was 8.89 cm (3.5 in.). Test conditions were a gear temperature of 350 K (170 F), a maximum Hertz stress of 1.71 billion N/sq m (248,000 psi), and a speed of 10,000 rpm. The shot peened gears exhibited pitting fatigue lives 1.6 times the life of standard gears without shot peening. Residual stress measurements and analysis indicate that the longer fatigue life is the result of the higher compressive stress produced by the shot peening. The life for the shot peened gear was calculated to be 1.5 times that for the plain gear by using the measured residual stress difference for the standard and shot peened gears. The measured residual stress for the shot peened gears was much higher than that for the standard gears.
    Keywords: MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
    Type: NASA-TP-2047 , E-936 , NAS 1.60:2047
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The design of a gear mesh is treated with the objective of minimizing the gear size for a given gear ratio, pinion torque, pressure angle, and allowable tooth lengths. Tooth strengths considered include scoring, pitting fatigue, and bending fatigue. Kinematic involute interference is avoided. The design variation on standard spur gear teeth called the long and short addendum system, is considered. In this system the mesh center distance and pressure angle are maintained as is the ability to manufacture the teeth with standard tooling. However, the pinion and gear tooth proportions are altered in order to obtain fewer teeth numbers for the same ratio as standard gears without kinematic involute interference. The effect of this nonstandard gearing geometry with on tooth strengths and gear mesh size are studied. For a 2:1 gearing ratio, the optimal nonstandard gear design is compared with the optimal standard gear design.
    Keywords: MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
    Type: AVRADCOM-TR-82-C-7 , NAS 1.15:82866 , E-1235 , NASA-TM-82866
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1520-6882
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2017-10-02
    Description: A design procedure for sizing standard involute spur gearsets is presented. The procedure is applied to find the optimal design for two examples - an external gear mesh with a ratio of 5:1 and an internal gear mesh with a ratio of 5:1. In the procedure, the gear mesh is designed to minimize the center distance for a given gear ratio, pressure angle, pinion torque, and allowable tooth strengths. From the methodology presented, a design space may be formulated for either external gear contact or for internal contact. The design space includes kinematics considerations of involute interference, tip fouling, and contact ratio. Also included are design constraints based on bending fatigue in the pinion fillet and Hertzian contact pressure in the full load region and at the gear tip where scoring is possible. This design space is two dimensional, giving the gear mesh center distance as a function of diametral pitch and the number of pinion teeth. The constraint equations were identified for kinematic interference, fillet bending fatigue, pitting fatigue, and scoring pressure, which define the optimal design space for a given gear design. The locus of equal size optimum designs was identified as the straight line through the origin which has the least slope in the design region.
    Keywords: MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
    Type: Advanced Power Transmission Technol.; p 435-460
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Scoring tests, surface fatigue tests, and single-tooth bending fatigue tests were conducted with four sets of spur gears of standard design and three sets of spur gears of the new tooth form (NTF) design. Scoring tests were conducted in a gear test rig at a speed of 10,000 rpm using a synthetic polyester C5, C6, C7 substituted pentaerythritol oil. Surface fatigue tests were conducted in the same rig at a speed of 10,000 rpm and Hertz stresses of 173 x 10 to the 7th power and 143 x 10 to the 7th power Pa (250,000 and 214,000 psi). Single tooth bending fatigue tests were conducted on both the standard and NTF gears at an initial load that produced a 10.35 x 10 to the eight power Pa (150,000-psi) bending stress. The gears were load cycled to failure or for 3 x 10 to the 6th power cycles, whichever occurred first. The load was increased after test until failure occurred at 3 x 10 to the 6th power cycles or less. Both the standard and NTF gears scored at a gear bulk temperature of approximately 409 K (277 F). At this temperature the load on the NTF gears was 22 percent less than the load on the standard gears. The scoring failure was a function of gear bulk temperature, where for a given lubricant the temperature is a function of gear design, operating load, and speed.
    Keywords: MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
    Type: Advanced Power Transmission Technol.; p 519-531
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: A gear tooth temperature analysis was performed using a finite element method combined with a calculated heat input, a calculated oil jet impingement depth, and estimated heat transfer coefficients for the different parts of the gear tooth that are oil cooled and air cooled. Experimental measurements of gear tooth average surface temperature and gear tooth instantaneous surface temperature were made with a fast response, infrared, radiometric microscope. Increasing oil pressure has a significant effect on both average surface temperature and peak surface temperature at loads above 1895 N/cm(1083 lb/in) and speeds of 10,000 and 7500 rpm. Both increasing speed (from 5000 to 10,000 rpm) at constant speed cause a significant rise in the average surface temperature and in the instantaneous peak surface temperatures on the gear teeth. The oil jet pressure required to provide the best cooling for gears is the pressure required to obtain full gear tooth impingement. Calculated results for gear tooth temperatures were close to experimental results for various oil jet impingement depths for identical operating conditions.
    Keywords: MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
    Type: Advanced Power Transmission Technol.; p 477-490
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: The penetration depth onto the tooth flank of a jet of oil at different velocities pointed at the pitch line on the outgoing side of mesh was determined. The analysis determines the impingement depth for both the gear and the pinion. It includes the cases for speed increasers and decreasers as well as for one to one gear ratio. In some cases the jet will strike the loaded side of the teeth, and in others it will strike the unloaded side of the teeth. In nearly all cases the top land will be cooled regardless of the penetration depth, and postimpingement oil spray will usually provide adequate amounts of oil for lubrication but is marginal or inadequate for cooling.
    Keywords: MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
    Type: Advanced Power Transmission Technol.; p 461-476
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: An analytical method for predicting surface fatigue life of gears was presented. General statistical methods were outlined, showing the application of the general methods to a simple gear mesh. Experimentally determined values for constants in the life equation were given. Comparison of the life theory with test results and AGMA standards was made. Gear geometry pertinent to life calculations was reviewed.
    Keywords: MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
    Type: Advanced Power Transmission Technol.; p 421-434
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