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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Plant, cell & environment 7 (1984), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract. The carbon, water and nutrient relations of the xylem parasites Loranthus europaeus and Viscum laxum and their respective hosts. Quercus robur and Pinus sylvestris, were followed throughout clear days in July in order to study water and nutrient interactions in a simple system in which the plant growth depends on the host for its water and nutrients. At similar quantum flux densities, temperatures and vapour pressure deficits, the mistletoes had higher rates of transpiration and lower leaf water potentials than their hosts, but similar rates of CO2 assimilation. Based on measurements of the nutrient content of the xylem and on seasonal measurements of the biomass and the tissue nutrient content, the present study suggests that the high rates of transpiration may be necessary for the parasites to take up sufficient nitrogen from the xylem of the host for production of biomass (leaves, fruits and stems).
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing
    Plant, cell & environment 7 (1984), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract It had been hypothesized that if daily CO2 assimilation is to be maximized at a given level of daily transpiration, stomatal apertures should change during the day so that the gain ratio (∂A/∂g)/(∂E/∂g) remains constant. These partial differentials describe the sensitivity of assimilation rate (A) and transpiration rate (E) to changes in stomatal conductance (g). Experiments were conducted to determine whether stomata respond to environment in a manner which results in constant gain ratios.Gas–exchange measurements were made of the stomatal and photosynthetic responses of Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. in controlled environments. Leaf conductance to water vapour responded to step changes in temperature and humidity so that for different steady-state conditions the gain ratio remained constant on all but one day. Depletion of water in the root zone resulted in day-to-day increases in gain ratio which were correlated with decreases in maximum leaf conductance to water vapour. The significance of the results for plant adaptation and stomatal mechanisms, and methods for measuring the gain ratio, are discussed.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing
    Plant, cell & environment 5 (1982), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Host parasite interactions ; Mistletoe ; Nutrient relations (mistletoes) ; Phoradendron ; Water relations (mistletoes)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Xylem-tapping mistletoes are known to have normally a higher rate of transpiration and lower water-use efficiency than their hosts. The relationships between water relations, nutrients and growth were investigated for Phoradendron juniperinum growing on Juniperus osteosperma (a non-nitrogen-fixing tree) and for Phoradendron californicum growing on Acacia greggii (a nitrogen-fixing tree). Xylem sap nitrogen contents were approximately 3.5 times higher in the nitrogen-fixing host than in the non-nitrogen-fixing host. The results of the present study show that mistletoe growth rates were sevenfold greater on a nitrogen-fixing host. At the same time, however, the differences in water-use efficiency between mistletoes and their hosts, which were observed on the non-nitrogen-fixing host did not exist when mistletoes were grown on hosts with higher nitrogen contents in their xylem sap. Growth rates and the accumulation of N, P, K, and Ca as well as values for carbon-isotope ratios of mistletoe tissues support the hypothesis that the higher transpiration rates of mistletoes represent a nitrogen-gathering mechanism.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A portable porometer is described for measuring the steady-state CO2 and H2O exchange rates of leaves under natural conditions. The porometer has an open gas exchange system which monitors the differences in concentrations of CO2 and H2O entering and leaving a cuvette which is clamped on or around leaves. The cuvette is designed to maintain ambient air temperature and humidity around the leaf. This instrument may also be used to determine CO2 response curves in the field. Examples of diurnal courses are presented for attached leaves of different species having high and low rates of CO2 exchange.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Tradescantia virginiana L. plants were cultivated under contrasting conditions of temperature, humidity, light quality and intensity, and nutrient status in order to investigate the effect of growth conditions on the water relations parameters of the leaf epidermal cells. Turgor pressure (P), volumetric elastic modulus (ɛ), half-time of water potential equilibration (T 1/2), hydraulic conductivity (L p ) were measured with the miniaturized pressure probe in single cells of the upper and lower epidermis of leaves. Turgor differed (range: 0.1 bar to 7.2 bar) between treatments with lowest values under warm and humid conditions and additional supply of fertilizer, and highest values under conditions of low air humidity and low nutrient supply. The volumetric elastic modulus changed by 2 orders of magnitude (range: 3.0 bar to 350 bar, 158 cells), but ɛ was only affected by the treatments, in as much as it was dependent on turgor. The turgor dependence of ɛ, measured on intact leaves of T. virginiana, was similar to that for cells of the isolated (peeled) lower epidermis, where ɛ as a function of turgor was linear over the whole range of turgors. This result has implications for the discussion of pressure/volume curves as measured by the pressure bomb where changes in “bulk leaf ɛ” are frequently discussed as “adaptations” to certain treatments. The measurements of the hydraulic conductivity indicate that this parameter varies between treatments (range of means: 2.4×10-6 cm s-1 bar-1 to 13.4×10-6 cm s-1 bar-1). There was a negative correlation for L p in cells of intact leaves as a function of turgor which was altered by the growing conditions. However, a correlation with turgor could not be found for cells from isolated epidermis or cells from a uniform population of plants. The large variation in L p from cell to cell observed in the present and in previous studies was accounted for in a study of 100 cells from a uniform population of plants by the propagation of measurement errors in calculating L p . The results suggest that in T. virginiana cellular water relations are changed mainly by the turgor dependence of ɛ.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Elasticity ; Hydraulic conductivity ; Leaf cells ; Tradescantia ; Turgor pressure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The water relations of leaves of Tradescantia virginiana were studied using the miniaturized pressure probe (Hüsken, E. Steudle, Zimmermann, 1978 Plant Physiol. 61, 158–163). Under well-watered conditions cell turgor pressures, P o, ranged from 2 to 8 bar in epidermal cells. In subsidiary cells P o was about 1.5 to 4.5 bar and in mesophyll cells about 2 to 3.5 bar. From the turgor pressure, relaxation induced in individual cells by changing the turgor pressure directly by means of the pressure probe, the half-time of water exchange was measured to be between 3 and 100 s for the epidermal, subsidiary, and mesophyll cells. The volumetric elastic modulus, ε, of individual cells was determined by changing the cell volume by a defined amount and simultaneously measuring the corresponding change in cell turgor pressure. The values for the elastic modulus for epidermal, subsidiary, and mesophyll cells are in the range of 40 to 240 bar, 30 to 200 bar, and 6 to 14 bar, respectively. Using these values, the hydraulic conductivity, L p, for the epidermal, subsidiary, and mesophyll cells is calculated from the turgor pressure relaxation process (on the basis of the thermodynamics of irreversible processes) to be between 1 and 55·10-7 cm s-1 bar-1. The data for the volumetric elastic modulus of epidermal and subsidiary cells indicate that the corresponding elastic modulus for the guard cells should be considerably lower due to the large volume changes of these cells during opening or closing. Recalculation of experimental data obtained by K. Raschke (1979, Encycl. Plant Physiol. N.S., vol. 7, pp 383–441) on epidermal strips of Vicia faba indicates that the elastic modulus of guard cells of V. faba is in the order of 40–80 bar for closed stomata. However, with increasing stomatal opening, i.e., increasing guard cell volume, ε decreases. Therefore, in our opinion Raschke's results would indicate a relationship between guard cell volume and ε which would be inverse to that for plant cells known in the literature. ε assumes values between 20–40 bar when the guard cell colume is soubled.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Plant ecology 40 (1980), S. 192-192 
    ISSN: 1573-5052
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary CO2-assimilation and leaf conductance of Larix decidua Mill. were measured in the field at high (Patscherkofel, Austria) and low (Bayreuth, Germany) elevation in Europe, and outside its natural range along an altitudinal gradient in New Zealand. Phenology of leaf and stem growth showed New Zealand sites to have much longer growing seasons than in Europe, so that the timberline (1,330 m) season was almost twice as long as at the Austrian timberline (1,950 m). The maximum rates of photosynthesis, A max, were similar at all sites after completion of leaf growth, namely 3 to 3.5 μmol m-2 s-1. Only the sun needles of the Bayreuth tree reached 3.5 to 5 μmol m-2 s-1. Light response curves for CO2-assimilation changed during leaf ontogeny, the slope being less in young than in adult leaves. The temperature optimum for 90% of maximum photosynthesis was at all sites similar between ca. 12–28°C for much of the summer. Only at the cooler high altitude timberline sites were optima lower at ca. 10–16°C in developing needles during early summer. A linear correlation existed between A max and leaf conductance at A max, and this showed no difference between the sites except for sun needles at Bayreuth. Leaf conductance responded strongly to light intensity and this was concurrent with the light response of CO2-uptake. A short-term and a long-term effect were differentiated. With increasing age maximum rates of CO2-uptake and leaf conductance at A max increased, whereas short-term response during changes in light declined. The stomata became less responsive with increasing age and tended to remain open. The stomatal responses to light have a significant effect on the water use efficiency during diurnal courses. A higher water use efficiency was found for similar atmospheric conditions in spring than in autumn. Stomata responded with progressive closure to declining air humidity in a similar manner under dissimilar climates. Humidity response thus showed insensitivity to habitat differences. From the diurnal course of gas-exchange stomata were more closed at timberline (1,330 m) than at lower elevations but this did not lead to corresponding site differences in CO2-exchange suggesting Larix may not be operating at high water use efficiency when air is humid. The main difference between habitats studied was in the time necessary for completion of needle development. Similarity in photosynthesis and leaf conductance existed between sites when tree foliage was compared at the same stage of development. Length of growing season and time requirement for foliar development appear to be a principle factor in the carbon balance of deciduous species. The evergreen habit may be more effective in counterbalancing the effects of cool short summers.
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