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  • 1980-1984  (11)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Three probands heterozygous for a mutant of apolipoprotein AI (apo AIMarburg, Utermann et al. 1982a) were detected by screening of 2282 unrelated individuals resulting an a frequency estimate of about 1/750 in the German population. All three probands with apo AIMarburg had hypertriglyceridemia (triglyceride above 250 mg/dl) and subnormal HDL-cholesterol (below 30 mg/dl), but no other lipoprotein abnormalities. The kindreds of two probands with AIMarburg were studied. The family data are consistent with an autosomal codominant inheritance of the trait. A total of 16 heterozygous blood relatives with the mutant AIMarburg were detected in these kindreds. Analysis of the plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels in relation to the apo AI phenotype was complicated by the high prevalence of diabetes mellitus and thyroid disease in one kindred and of hyperlipidemia in both kindreds. No consistent relationship between plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels, and the mutant apo AI could be demonstrated. Instead the mutant apo AI and the dyslipoproteinemia seem to co-exist independently in these kindreds. Three sibs with the homozygous apo E-2/2 phenotype were detected in one kindred, and all three sibs had subnormal LDL-cholesterol and beta-VLDL, e.g., the lipoprotein abnormality characterizing primary dysbetalipoproteinemia. Genetic apo E phenotypes and the apo AI mutant segregated independently, indicating that the structural gene loci for apo E and apo AI are not closely linked.
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  • 2
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 295 (1982), S. 688-690 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Although the interpretation of results from granulometric experiments is controversial7, there is agreement on the following basic points: (1) A sample with multi-domain pure magnetite as the magnetic mineral will generally show /r//max - 0.2 with approximate doubling of coercivity as the ...
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0021-8383
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Carbon-13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectra of PhenylfulgidesThe carbon-13 chemical shifts are determined in a series of phenylfulgides in order to investigate steric and electronic influences of substituents. By means of the shift differences between suitably substituted compounds results can be obtained as to the relative variation of the rotation angles of the phenyl rings as well as to te angle alterations between the exocyclic double bonds and the anhydride ring. Introducing 4-CH3O- and 4-NO2-groups at the phenyl rings the substituent induced alterations of the carbon-13 chemical shifts and the π-polarization effects related with it are discussed.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0021-8383
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Photooxidation of Leuco Dyes. VIII. Time Resolved Investigations of the Mechanism of the Photooxidation of Leucocrystal VioletThe photooxidation of leucocrystal violet has been reexamined by means of conventional and laser flash photolysis as well as spin trap experiments. Three radical transients have been observed and assigned to the cation radical (λmax ≈ 490, 530 nm), the neutral radical with one—NCH3—CH2 moiety (λmax ≈ 480 nm) and the triphenyl methyl radical derivative (λmax ≈ 400 nm).
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1435-1528
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary An orifice viscosimeter with automatic measuring device is constructed in which extensional flow is realized in good approximation. With this, together with appropriate rotational viscometers, measurements on concentrated suspensions of rigid spheres in Newtonian liquids are performed. Significant differences are found between viscosities in orifice and shear flows. In extensional flow suspensions of monodisperse glass-spheres with a medium concentration range (0.2 〈Φ 〈 0.52) show lower viscosities than in shear flow, whereas with the highest concentrations (Φ 〉 0.52) extensional viscosities become higher than shear viscosities. These results can be explained by different mechanisms of configurational rearranging of the spheres. In shear flows at very high concentrations transition from viscous to granular flow is observed. Under these conditions monodisperse spheres arrange into hexagonally packed layers which are sliding one upon another. Even a more pronounced effect of flow type is observed when PMMA spheres in oil are used. Now in shear flow shear-thinning occurs, whereas in extensional flow the same as before a constant viscosity is measured of which the value corresponds to the upper Newtonian shear viscosity. This may be explained by the greater effectivity of extensional flow with respect to desagglomeration processes. When in suspensions of glass spheres oil as the suspending medium is substituted by an aqueous solution of glucose higher values of relative viscosities are realized. There are some indications that this is effected by repulsive mutual forces.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Es wird ein Auslaufviskosimeter mit automatischer Meßwertermittlung konstruiert, in dem in guter Näherung eine Dehnströmung realisiert ist. Hiermit werden in Verbindung mit geeigneten Rotationsviskosimetern vergleichende Messungen an konzentrierten Suspensionen von starren Kugeln in newtonschen Flüssigkeiten durchgeführt, wobei ausgeprägte Unterschiede auftreten. So ergeben sich bei Suspensionen von monodispersen Glaskugeln in Öl in der Dehnströmung für mittlere Konzentrationen (0,2 〈Φ 〈 0,52) deutlich kleinere, für hohe Konzentrationen (Φ 〉 0,52) aber größere Viskositätswerte als in der Scherströmung. Diese Differenzen lassen sich auf unterschiedliche Platzwechselmechanismen zurückführen. Bei Scherströmungen beobachtet man für die höchsten Konzentrationen einen Übergang vom viskosen zum kornartigen Fließen. In monodispersen Systemen ordnen sich dabei die Kugeln zu hexagonal dicht gepackten Schichten, die übereinander gleiten. Noch deutlicher macht sich der Einfluß des Strömungstyps bei Suspensionen mit Plexiglaskugeln in Öl bemerkbar. In der Scherströmung beobachtet man Scherentzähung, wohingegen in der Dehnströmung nach wie vor eine konstante Viskosität gemessen wird, deren Größe genähert dem Grenzwert des oberen newtonschen Bereichs bei der Scherströmung entspricht. Dies ist durch die größere Effektivität der Dehnströmung bezüglich der Desagglomerierung erklärbar. Wird bei den Glaskugel-Suspensionen das Suspensionsmittel Öl durch eine wäßrige Glucose-Lösung ersetzt, so findet man höhere Werte der relativen Viskosität. Es sind gewisse Hinweise dafür vorhanden, daß dies durch abstoßende Wechselwirkungskräfte hervorgerufen wird.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0021-8383
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Electronic and Steric Substituent Influences on the U.V./VIS-Absorption Spectra of Phenylfulgide IsomersThe u.v./vis spectral data of a large number of phenylfulgides (E-, Z-, E-E-, E-Z-, Z-E-, Z-Z-isomers, 1.8a-dihydronaphthalenes) are presented. An increase of the number of phenyl rings as well as substitution of the phenyl rings cause correlatable bathochromic spectral shifts. Steric influences became obvious by introducing methyl groups, by coplanarization of phenyl groups and in the series of isomers. By means of PPP calculations shifts in position and/or intensity of absorption bands are ascribed to the substituent effects.The calculated band polarization of E(E-E)-isomers are in agreement with the results of polarization spectra in oriented liquid crystal mesophases. The polarization spectra allow the assignment of the longwave absorption band to the S2 ← S0 and S1 ← S0 electronic transitions for E-E-Isomers with a C2v-symmetry.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0021-8383
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Direct and Sensitized Photoisomerization of α,δ-PhenylfulgidesThe photoreactions starting from the E- and E-E-isomers of mono-, di-, tri- and tetra-(substituted-)phenylfulgides are investigated. The phenylfulgides show strong steric interactions in the molecular framework. For that reason internal conversion is the main deactivation process which increases in the series of mono-, tri- and tetraphenylfulgides. The α,δ-di-(substituted-)-phenylfulgides show the highest photoreactivity. At room temperature in no case luminescence is observed from any E(E-E)-, Z(E-Z, Z-E)- or Z-Z-phenylfulgid isomer of the substances under study. Intersystem crossing cannot compete neither with thermal deactivation nor can it be observed by applying both the internal and external heavy atom effect. The phenylfulgides show typical ππ*-photoreactivity: in the singlet state E-Z-isomerization about one double bond competes with electrocyclic ring closure; in the triplet state only simultaneous E-Z-isomerization about the two double bonds is observed. The steric and electronic substituent influences on the photoreactivity are interpreted. A first qualitative model of the isomerization reactions of the fulgides in the excited states is established.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0021-8383
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The Photochromism of Fulgides. IX. Investigations of the Photochemistry of α-3,5-Dimethoxyphenyl-δ,δ-dimethylfulgideThe mechanism of photoisomerization of α-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl-δ, δ-dimethylfulgide was investigated by means of u.v./vis- and fluorescence spectroscopy. The quantum yields of E-Z isomerization and cyclisation were determined in various solvents and at different temperatures. Triplet sensitization of E-Z isomerization by several sensitizers has been found. The thermal dark reactions of the deep coloured species were reinvestigated.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0021-8383
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Photooxidation of Leuco Dyes. III. Sensitized Photooxidation of Leuco FluoresceinQuantum yields of the sensitized photooxidation of leuco fluorescein are reported. Fluorescein and benzophenone were found to be efficient sensitizers of photooxidation of leuco fluorescein. There is a characteristic dependence of quantum yields on concentration of leuco fluorescein and oxygen in the solution. The results are discussed on the basis of reaction scheme proposed for the sensitized formation of fluorescein.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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