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  • 1
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Rates of emission of H2S were measured for 10-week-old soybean plants (Glycine max L. Merr. cvs. Kent, Peking and York) raised in growth cabinets. Days were 12 h long, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was about 600 mE m-2 s-1, humidity was 50-60% and the temperature was 15 C at night and ...
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Despite the extrame aridity of the coastal Atacama Desert in northern Chile, sparse communities of leaf succulent shrubs and small cacti are regularly present. While most shrub species have small succulent leaves and accumulate high concentrations of salts in their tissues, the variable rooting patterns and mixed dominance of CAM and C3 species indicates a significant divergence in adaptive strategies. All dominant shrubs are readily surviving extended drought, but some species are much better able than others to maintain active growth and flowering. Regular flowering may not be a prerequisite for shrub population maintenance since large piles of viable seeds are present under the canopies of many species.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Prosopis tamarugo, a tree native to the Atacama desert of Chile apparently has unique water relations. It is proposed that in its native habitat, where there is essentially no precipitation, establishment occurs during the rare flooding periods, with water coming as runoff from the Andes. These plants subsequently exist as phreatophytes tapping the relatively shallow ground water. Although phreatophytic, the plants appears to come under increasing drought stress as the growing season progresses. Because of the very low water potentials of the salty surface soils, water evidently moves from the plant into the soil under certain conditions. This water may be reabsorbed subsequently and used by the plant as the water table capillary fringe is depleted toward the end of the leafy period.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Oecologia 52 (1982), S. 16-21 
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary 10 broadleafed trees and shrubs native to the mediterranean climactic zone in California were surveyed for their photosynthetic and stomatal responses to SO2. These species ranged from drought deciduous to evergreen and had diverse responses to SO2. These results suggest an approach for predicting SO2 resistances of plants. We found that conductance values of plants in SO2-free air can be used to estimate the quantity of SO2 which plants absorb. These estimates are based on conductance values for plants in non-limiting environmental conditions. SO2 absorption quantities are then used to predict relative photosynthesis following the fumigation. Thus, relative photosynthesis of plants following fumigation can be predicted on the basis of conductance in SO2-free air. This approach to predicting SO2 resistances of plants includes analysis of their stomatal responses to fumigation, their characteristics of SO2 adsorption and absorption, and their change in photosynthesis resulting from SO2 stress.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Water resource partitioning among three co-occurring species of the California annual grassland was investigated. Plantago erecta, Clarkia rubicunda and Hemizonia luzulifolia differ in lifespan. The lifespan of Plantago is coincident with the October–May rainy season, but the other two species reproduce during summer when no precipitation occurs, and thus depend on stored water. Field studies indicated differential access to stored water commensurate with the phenology of each species. Studies of artificial stands under controlled conditions showed no difference in the species' ability to exploit stored water in the soil. However there was a striking difference in root behavior between Plantago and Hemizonia when plants were grown in a soil layer above a non-nutritive, waterstoring substrate. We concluded that Hemizonia, the longest lived species, survives on water stored in decomposed rock below the soil layer. Clarkia is restricted to cooler slope faces where a slightly longer growing season appears just suficient to complete reproduction. Productivity is enhanced by addition of later blooming species to the community, but there is no indication that the mixture is the most productive system.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary In five California evergreen trees and shrubs cooccurring in this study but most common in habitats of different moisture availability, leaf nitrogen was a major determinant of photosynthetic capacity. Within each species, stomatal conductance was highly correlated with photosynthetic capacity, resulting in little variation in the concentration of CO2 in the intercellular spaces. Among species, intercellular CO2 concentrations varied significantly. Under controlled conditions, the leaves that realized the highest photosynthesis per unit of leaf nitrogen tended to realize the lowest photosynthesis per unit of water transpired. The ratio of photosynthesis to transpiration, an instantaneous measure of intrinsic water-use efficiency, was highest in the species commonly found in the direst habitats and lowest in the species most common in the wettes habitats.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Desert annuals of Death Valley, California have higher average light-saturated photosynthetic capacities and leaf nitrogen contents than do early-successional annuals of Illinois. The leaves of annuals in the light-unlimited Death Valley environment change little in specific weight, nitrogen, or photosynthetic capacity with age. In contrast, these properties decrease markedly with age in the leaves of the Illinois annuals even in leaves not exposed to the usual shading that accompanies canopy development. These results are interpreted in a carbon-gained-per-nitrogen-invested context.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Plants of the widely distributed species Heliotropium curassavicum L. have a large photosynthetic acclimation potential to temperature. There are, however, some differences among the acclimation potentials of populations occupying dissimilar thermal regimes. Plants of populations originating from a cool maritime climate have a greater acclimation potential than plants of populations originating from a desert habitat, which is characterized by large seasonal changes in temperature.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary In spite of the ten times higher evaporative demand in a desert versus a coastal habitat, plants of populations of Heliotropium curassavicum from both show similar stomatal conductances in the field as well as under controlled conditions. The desert plants however have a plastic stomatal response to dry air growing conditions which results in a greater photosynthetic performance at negative water potentials. The root and stem resistance to water flow is lower in the desert plants resulting in the maintenance of a high transpiration rate without a large reduction in water potential.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Plants of two populations of Diplacus aurantiacus, a subshrub of the Californian chaparral, were compared for their stomatal response to water vapor concentration gradients. Plants of a coastal and an interior population were compared when grown under both low and high humidities. When grown at high humidity the coastal plants exhibited higher conductances and higher transpiration/photosynthesis ratios at all leaf-to-air water vapor concentration gradients than did the interior plants. Although all of the plants examined showed a pronounced stomatal response to humidity the response did not result in the degree of regulation of water-use efficiency reported for other Californian coastal species.
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