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  • 1
    Publication Date: 1980-01-11
    Description: Stereoisomers of the barbiturate anesthetic pentobarbital were applied to mouse spinal neurons growing in tissue culture. Intracellular recordings of neuronal membrane properties revealed that the (+) and (-) isomers caused direct changes in membrane potential and conductance on some but not all of the cells tested. The action of the (+) isomer was predominantly excitatory, whereas the (-) isomer produced predominantly inhibitory responses. The (-) isomer was considerably more effective in potentiating inhibitory responses to the transmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid. The results show that pentobarbital has multiple effects on neuronal excitability and demonstrate the presence of stereospecific sites of barbiturate action on central neurons.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Huang, L Y -- Barker, J L -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Jan 11;207(4427):195-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7350656" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Action Potentials/drug effects ; Animals ; Cells, Cultured ; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug ; Electric Conductivity ; Membrane Potentials/drug effects ; Mice ; Neural Inhibition/drug effects ; Neurons/*drug effects ; Pentobarbital/*pharmacology ; Spinal Cord/embryology ; Stereoisomerism ; Structure-Activity Relationship
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1981-04-17
    Description: Voltage-clamp recordings from mouse spinal neurons grown in culture were used to study the membrane current fluctuations induced by 12 substances structurally similar to gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Fluctuation analysis provided estimates of the electrical properties of the elementary events underlying these responses. Estimates of the mean conductance of channels activated by all of the substances except glycine did not differ significantly from that estimated for GABA, whereas mean durations of agonist-activated channels all differed significantly from that found for GABA. The results indicate that all of the substances tested except glycine activate channels of similar conductance but of different durations.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Barker, J L -- Mathers, D A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1981 Apr 17;212(4492):358-61.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6259733" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Membrane/drug effects ; Ion Channels/*drug effects ; Membrane Potentials/drug effects ; Mice ; Neurons/drug effects ; Receptors, Cell Surface/metabolism ; Receptors, GABA-A ; Spinal Nerves/*drug effects ; Structure-Activity Relationship ; Time Factors ; gamma-Aminobutyric Acid/*analogs & derivatives/pharmacology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 1981-03-27
    Description: The binding of [3H]diazepam to benzodiazepine receptors was studied in extensively washed membranes of rat cerebral cortex in the presence of the depressant barbiturate, pentobarbital. Pentobarbital, like the endogenous neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), increased the basal binding and also potentiated the GABA-enhanced binding of [3H]diazepam to benzodiazepine receptors by increasing the apparent affinity of [3H]diazepam for the benzodiazepine receptor. The concentrations of pentobarbital necessary to elicit these effects in vitro are the same as those observed after treatment with pharmacologically relevant doses, suggesting that a common neurochemical association may exist between these types of compounds.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Skolnick, P -- Moncada, V -- Barker, J L -- Paul, S M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1981 Mar 27;211(4489):1448-50.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6258230" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cerebral Cortex/drug effects ; Chlorides/metabolism ; Diazepam/metabolism ; Male ; Pentobarbital/*pharmacology ; Rats ; Receptors, Drug/*drug effects/metabolism ; Receptors, GABA-A ; Stimulation, Chemical ; gamma-Aminobutyric Acid/pharmacology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 1980-05-30
    Description: The cellular mechanisms underlying picrotoxin-induced convulsive activity were studied by using mouse spinal neurons growing in tissue culture. Picrotoxin-induced convulsive activity in most but not all of the cells studied. The activity could be inverted by polarizing to positive potentials and eliminated either by decreasing the ratio of calcium to magnesium or by applying tetrodotoxin. When applied locally to individual cells, picrotoxin lowered spike threshold and induced spontaneous firing in some but not all cells tested. The results suggest that picrotoxin-induced convulsive activity involves rapidly summating synaptic activity which may be evoked by high-frequency repetitive firing.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Barker, J L -- MacDonald, J F -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 May 30;208(4447):1054-6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7375918" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Action Potentials/drug effects ; Animals ; Calcium/pharmacology ; Cells, Cultured ; Magnesium/pharmacology ; Membrane Potentials/drug effects ; Mice ; Picrotoxin/*pharmacology ; Seizures/*chemically induced ; Spinal Cord/*drug effects/physiology ; Synapses/*drug effects
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1980-07-25
    Description: Intracellular recordings from voltage-clamped mouse spinal neurons in tissue culture were used to study the membrane mechanisms underlying inhibitory responses to gamma-aminobutyric acid and the (-) isomer of pentobarbital. Fluctuation analysis suggested that both substances activated ion channels in the membranes. However, the channels activated by pentobarbital remained open five times longer than those activated by gamma-aminobutyric acid.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Mathers, D A -- Barker, J L -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Jul 25;209(4455):507-9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6248961" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Membrane/drug effects/physiology ; Cells, Cultured ; Ion Channels/drug effects/*physiology ; Membrane Potentials/drug effects ; Mice ; Neurons/drug effects/*physiology ; Pentobarbital/*pharmacology ; Spinal Cord/*physiology ; gamma-Aminobutyric Acid/pharmacology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A common scientific methodology and terminology is outlined for characterizing the radiometry of both TM sensors. The magnitude of the most significant sources of radiometric variability are discussed and methods are recommended for achieving the exceptional potential inherent in the radiometric precision and accuracy of the TM sensors.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.15:85623 , NASA-TM-85623 , E84-10186
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The image characteristics of digital data generated by LANDSAT 4 thematic mapper (TM) are discussed. Digital data from the TM resides in tape files at various stages of image processing. Within each image data file, the image lines are blocked by a factor of either 5 for a computer compatible tape CCT-BT, or 4 for a CCT-AT and CCT-PT; in each format, the image file has a different format. Nominal geometric corrections which provide proper geodetic relationships between different parts of the image are available only for the CCT-PT. It is concluded that detector 3 of band 5 on the TM does not respond; this channel of data needs replacement. The empty bin phenomenon in CCT-AT images results from integer truncations of mixed-mode arithmetric operations.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: E84-10183 , NAS 1.15:85620 , NASA-TM-85620
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The results of the absolute radiometric calibration of the LANDSAT 4 thematic mapper, as determined during pre-launch tests with a 122 cm integrating sphere, are presented. Detailed results for the best calibration of the protoflight TM are given, as well as summaries of other tests performed on the sensor. The dynamic range of the TM is within a few per cent of that required in all bands, except bands 1 and 3. Three detectors failed to pass the minimum SNR specified for their respective bands: band 5, channel 3 (dead), band 2, and channels 2 and 4 (noisy or slow response). Estimates of the absolute calibration accuracy for the TM show that the detectors are typically calibrated to 5% absolute error for the reflective bands; 10% full-scale accuracy was specified. Ten tests performed to transfer the detector absolute calibration to the internal calibrator show a 5% range at full scale in the transfer calibration; however, in two cases band 5 showed a 10% and a 7% difference.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.15:85600 , E84-10180 , NASA-TM-85600
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Raw thematic mapper (TM) calibration data from pre-launch tests and in-orbit acquisitions from LANDSAT 4 and 5 satellites are analyzed to assess the radiometric characteristics of the TM sensor. A software program called TM radiometric and algorithmic performance program (TRAPP) was used for the majority of analyses. Radiometric uncertainty in the final TM image originates from: (1) scene variability (solar irradiance and atmospheric scattering); (2) optical and electrical variability of the sensor; and (3) variability introduced during image processing.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.15:85599 , E84-10179 , NASA-TM-85599
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The radiometric subsystem of NASA's LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor is described. Special emphasis is placed on the internal calibrator (IC) pulse shapes and timing cycle. The procedures for the absolute radiometric calibration of the TM channels with a 122-centimeter integrating sphere and the transfer of radiometric calibration from the channels to the IC are reviewed. The use of the IC to calibrate TM data in the ground processing system consists of pulse integration, pulse averaging, IC state identification, linear regression analysis, and histogram equalization. An overview of the SCROUNGE-era (before August 1983) method is presented. Procedural differences between SCROUNGE and the TIPS-era (after July 1983) and the implications of these differences are discussed.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.15:85597 , E84-10056 , NASA-TM-85597
    Format: application/pdf
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