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  • ASTROPHYSICS  (589)
  • Life and Medical Sciences  (336)
  • Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
  • 1980-1984  (925)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: In this study, the intracellular concentrations of six elements (mmole/kg dry weight) were directly measured in the muscle fibers of pectoralis major muscles of eight week old, genetically dystrophic and normal chickens by the X-ray microanalysis technique. The extent of muscle degeneration was evaluated by morphometric measurements of muscle fiber diameter and other histological changes. A significant increase in the concentration of intracellular sodium and chlorine was evident in dystrophic muscles. The concentration of intracellular sodium was 127.0 ± 35.0 in the muscle fibers of dystrophic chicks compared to 65.7 ± 16.5 in normal controls. The concentration of chlorine was 90.5 ± 27.5 and 54.1 ± 5.5 in the muscle fibers of dystrophic and normal chicks respectively. The intracellular concentrations of potassium, magnesium, phosphorous, and sulfur remained unchanged in the dystrophic condition. Morphometric studies revealed that the dystrophic pectoralis muscles contain fewer but thicker fibers per unit area compared to normal pectoralis muscles. The importance of these findings are discussed in relation to the results of earlier investigations.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0197-8462
    Keywords: millimeter-wave radiation ; BHK-21/C13 cells in monolayer culture ; scanning electron microscopy ; transmission electron microscopy ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Occupational Health and Environmental Toxicology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Notes: Both thermal and athermal effects of millimeter-wave radiation on BHK-21/C13 cells were sought using scanning and transmission electron microscopy in conjunction with an in vitro technique that allows direct exposure of monolayer cultures to high average power densities. Culture dishes were irradiated by placing them on the open end of an E- or U-band wave guide. This technique exposes different regions of the cell monolayer lying along the longer axis of the wave guide aperture to varying power densities ranging from zero at each edge to twice the average power density at the center.Cell ultrastructure was unaffected by microwave radiation for 1 hour (41.8 or 74.0 GHz, average power densitites = 320 or 450 mW/cm2, respectively) with or without cooling by rapid recirculation of the culture medium. Temperature in recirculated cultures was held at 37.2 °C, and that in noncooled cultures never exceeded 42 °C during irradiation at either power density. In contrast, cell morphology was affected by microwave exposure whenever irradiation conditions were altered so that the temperature of the monolayer reached or exceeded 44.5 °C. Ultrastructural alterations included breakage of cell processes, progressive detachment of cells from the substrate, increased clumping of heterochromatin in the nuclei, and the appearance of large empty vesicles in the cytoplasm. Such morphological changes resulted from either application of higher average power densities or irradiation at the power densities described above at a higher ambient temperature (〉38.5°C).
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The Ca2+ activation mechanism of the longitudinal body wall muscles of Parastichopus californicus (sea cucumber) was studied using skinned muscle fiber bundles. Reversible phosphorylation of the myosin light chains correlated with Ca2+-activated tension and relaxation. Pretreatment of the skinned fibers with ATPγS and high Ca2+ (10-5M) resulted in irreversible thiophosphorylation of the myosin light chains and activation of a Ca2+ insensitive tension. In contrast, pretreatment with low Ca2+ (10-8M) and ATPγS results in no thiophosphorylation of the myosin light chains or irreversible activation of tension. These results are consistent with a Ca2+-sensitive myosin light chain kinase/phosphatase system being responsible for the activation of the muscle. Other agents known to have an effect upon the Ca2+-activated tension in skinned vertebrate smooth muscle fibers (trifluoperazine, catalytic subunit of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, and calmodulin) did not have an effect on myosin light chain phosphorylation or Ca2+-activated tension. These results suggest a different type of myosin light chain kinase than is found in vertebrate smooth muscle is responsible for the activation of parastichopus longitudinal body wall muscle.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0148-7280
    Keywords: spermatozoa ; flow cytometry ; DNA staining ; nuclear morphology ; ultrastructure ; mammals ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The morphological and ultrastructural changes that occur during preparation of porcine, bovine, and murine spermatozoa for flow cytometric quantification of the relative DNA content of the X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm populations were examined. Ejaculated spermatozoa from the boar and bull were washed using a series of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solutions prior to fixation, whereas the epididymal mouse spermatozoa were washed only in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Spermatozoa from all three species were then fixed in ethanol and processed for fluorochrome staining by a treatment regimen consisting of sulfhydryl reduction and proteolysis. The processed sperm nuclei were stained for DNA with the fluorochrome, 4′-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) before quantification by flow cytometry. Scanning and transmission electron micrographs of sperm heads taken at various steps of the preparation and staining procedures show 1) that the rigorous washing procedure disrupted the plasma and outer acrosomal membranes, 2) that ethanol fixation resulted in removal of the outer membranes and disintegration of the nuclear envelope, and 3) that thiol and proteolysis treatment removed the remaining cellular organelles including the tail and rapidly induced partial decondensation of the tightly packed chromatin. Sequential micrographs showed that the nuclear matrix of all three species increased in thickness about twofold during the preparation and staining. Consequently, the harsh procedures currently used for quantitative staining of DNA for high-resolution flow cytometric analyses destroy most cellular organelles and thereby prevent simultaneous characterization of DNA content and other sperm cell constituents.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Developmental Genetics 3 (1982), S. 247-253 
    ISSN: 0192-253X
    Keywords: H-Y antigen ; sex determination ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Karyotypically XY individuals of the C57BL/6J-YPOS mouse stock develop as females or hermaphrodites, but never as normal males. The aberrant sexual development results from the interaction of the C57BL/6J genetic background with the M. poschiavinus-derived Y chromosome. XY females from this stock were assayed for H-Y antigen. By the criteria of skin-grafting, the cell-mediated lympholysis test, and the popliteal lymph node assay, these XY females are antigenically indistinguishable from normal C57BL/6 males. Implications for the hypothesis that H-Y antigen induces formation of the mammalian testis are discussed.
    Additional Material: 2 Tab.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0197-8462
    Keywords: millimeter-wave radiation ; BHK-21/C13 cells in monolayer culture ; quantitative autoradiography ; ribonucleic acid (RNA) synthesis ; protein synthesis ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Occupational Health and Environmental Toxicology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Notes: A method has been devised whereby both the thermal and possible athermal biological effects resulting from microwave radiation can be assessed. Monolayer cultures of BHK-21/C13 cells were grown on microwave-transparent polystyrene coverslips, placed directly on the open end of a wave guide, and irradiated for 1 hour. In experiments seeking athermal biological effects of millimeter waves, culture medium was continuously recirculated over the cells to prevent temperature increases greater than 0.1 °C. Incorporation of 3H-uridine into RNA and of 3H-methionine into protein was quantified by measurement of optical densities of the autoradiographs in contiguous rectangular regions corresponding to portions of the cell monolayer immediately above the wave guide aperture and lying along its longer axis. Since power density was shown to vary with position along this axis according to a cosine2 relationship, it was possible to assess the extent of microwave effects on macromolecular synthesis at power densities ranging from zero at each edge to twice the average power density at the center of the waveguide.Monolayer cultures maintained at 37.2 °C by recirculation of the medium did not show microwave-induced changes in synthesis of RNA and protein (41.8 or 74.0 GHz at average power densities of 320 or 450 mW/cm2, respectively). Since macromolecular synthesis was examined both during and after irradiation, our results exclude both transient and persistent athermal biological effects of acute exposure to millimeter waves. In contrast, irradiation of cultures incubated in a small volume of nonrecirculated medium resulted in 1) marked heating of the monolayer, 2) a graded decline in macromolecular synthesis with increasing incident power, and 3), in some cases, destruction of the cell monolayer in the region immediately above the center of the waveguide aperture.
    Additional Material: 12 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0197-8462
    Keywords: protein synthesis ; quantitative autoradiography ; BHK-21/C13 cells ; millimeter-wave radiation ; frequency-specific biological effects ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Occupational Health and Environmental Toxicology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Notes: A method recently developed in this laboratory has been used to directly expose BHK-21/C13 cells to high levels of microwave radiation without significant microwave-induced heating (≤ 0.1 °C). Monolayer cultures were grown on microwave-transparent polystyrene coverslips, placed on the open end of a wave guide, and maintained at 37.2 °C during irradiation at frequencies in both the E- and U-bands (average power densities 292 and 177 mW/cm2, respectively). Effects of microwave radiation were assessed at 0.1 GHz increments in the ranges of 38-48 GHz and 65-75 GHz. Protein synthesis was measured in quadruplicate cultures that were allowed to incorporate labeled methionine during the 15-minute period of microwave irradiation. Autoradiographs of each monolayer culture were scanned along the region corresponding to the longer axis of the wave guide aperture using a microdensitometer to quantify incorporation. Since microwave power incident on the cells was previously shown to vary along this axis according to a cosine2 relationship from zero at each edge of the wave guide to twice the average power density at the center of the wave guide, this technique should reveal biological effects that might only be manifested in narrow amplitude domains or “power windows.” Observations of protein synthesis in monolayer cultures irradiated at 202 closely spaced frequencies in the E- and U-bands failed to reveal changes associated with microwave exposure. Thus no evidence was obtained in support of the existence of frequency-specific athermal biological effects of microwaves. In addition, no support was found for the existence of amplitude-specific “power windows”.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The photon number spectrum integrated over the impulsive part of the event is shown to fit a thermal bremsstrahlung function with a temperature of 330 + or - 70 keV at energies between 151 and 487 keV. At lower energies, the data points lie considerably below this function, indicating a broad absorption feature extending down to values less than or equal to 28 keV, the lowest energy measured. The upper energy of this absorption feature varies from 100 to 150 keV on a time scale less than or equal to 0.5 s. This event is interpreted as a typical gamma ray burst, even though it is still considered remotely possible that it is of solar origin. The spectral features, together with their variability, are interpreted in terms of electron interactions at the cyclotron resonance frequency in magnetic fields of 10 to the 12th - 10 to the 13th gauss close to the surface of a neutron star.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Gamma ray transients and related astrophysical phenomena; Workshop; Aug 05, 1981 - Aug 08, 1981; La Jolla, CA
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: On five occasions in 1977 and 1978, Cygnus X-1 was observed using the low-energy detectors of the UCSD/MIT Hard X-ray and Low-Energy Gamma Ray experiment on the HEAO 1 satellite. Rapid (times between 0.08 and 1000 sec) variability was found in the 10-140 keV band. The power spectrum was white for frequencies between 0.001 and 0.05 Hz and was proportional to the inverse of the frequency for frequencies between 0.05 and 3 Hz, indicating correlations on all time scales less than approximately 20 s. The shape of the energy spectrum was correlated with intensity; it was harder at higher intensity. If the emission is produced by Comptonization of a soft photon flux in a hot cloud, the heating of the cloud cannot be constant; it must vary on time scales up to approximately 20 s. A variable accretion rate could cause the observed effects.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal; vol. 246
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: The 1.24-sec pulsations of Her X-1 in the energy range 13-75 keV have been analyzed in data obtained from the UCSD/MIT experiment on HEAO 1 during observations of the source on three dates in February 1978 and three in August 1978. Observational results are (1) the main pulse broadens somewhat with increasing energy; (2) the pulsation light curve undergoes pronounced changes at the leading edge of the main pulse from day to day; (3) spectral hardening within the main pulse is confirmed; (4) a 40-60 keV spectral feature in the spectrum is confirmed; (5) this feature is resolved, the pulse width broadening is greater than 20%, and its centroid varies with pulsation phase; and (6) the 13-75 keV spectrum does not noticeably vary from day to day, except for an overall intensity factor. Some implications of these results for the prevailing models of Her X-1 and the HZ Her-Her X-1 system are briefly discussed.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal; vol. 240
    Format: text
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