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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: On five occasions in 1977 and 1978, Cygnus X-1 was observed using the low-energy detectors of the UCSD/MIT Hard X-ray and Low-Energy Gamma Ray experiment on the HEAO 1 satellite. Rapid (times between 0.08 and 1000 sec) variability was found in the 10-140 keV band. The power spectrum was white for frequencies between 0.001 and 0.05 Hz and was proportional to the inverse of the frequency for frequencies between 0.05 and 3 Hz, indicating correlations on all time scales less than approximately 20 s. The shape of the energy spectrum was correlated with intensity; it was harder at higher intensity. If the emission is produced by Comptonization of a soft photon flux in a hot cloud, the heating of the cloud cannot be constant; it must vary on time scales up to approximately 20 s. A variable accretion rate could cause the observed effects.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal; vol. 246
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  • 2
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2014-09-16
    Description: Observations at the 2.6 mm line of CO reveal the presence of a large number of molecular clouds at high galactic latitude. If the velocity dispersion of the clouds is a measure of their scale height, the mean distance of the ensemble detected is 100 pc. The clouds are unusual in that either they are not gravitationally bound or they are very deficient in CO relative to molecular hydrogen. These clouds represent a heretofore unrecognized component of the local interstellar medium. If they are pervasive in the Milky Way, they probably represent the small molecular cloud component of the interstellar medium.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center Local Interstellar Medium, No. 81; p 231-234
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: Morphological evidence is presented (in the form of 3-A-bandpass Fabry-Perot images made with a CCD camera) that the two bright emission-line systems seen toward the galaxy NGC 1275 arise from a high-velocity impact of a foreground galaxy upon the accretion flow of gas cooling in the center of the Perseus cluster. The uniquely high optical-line luminosity of NGC 1275, in comparison with other central galaxies in clusters observed to have cooling flows, may be explained by energy deposited during the collision. Using additional information from 21-cm and extinction measurements, a rough model of the interaction is developed. Problems remain with this model - such as the likelihood of a gas-rich system penetrating to the cluster center. The kinematic structure of the optically emitting gas shows additional complex structure near the nucleus of NGC 1275.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 2 - Letters to the Editor (ISSN 0004-637X); 275; L27-L31
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: The Einstein Imaging Particle Counter observed a major X-ray flare in its entirety during a 5-hr period of simultaneous observations, with the IUE, of the dM5e flare star Proxima Centauri in August, 1980. The detailed X-ray light curve, temperature determinations during various intervals, and UV line fluxes obtained before, during, and after the flare indirectly indicate a 'two-ribbon flare' prominence eruption. The calculated ratio of coronal to bolometric luminosity for the event is about 100 times the solar ratio. The Proxima Cen corona is analyzed in the context of static loop models, in light of which it is concluded that less than 6% of the stellar surface seems to be covered by X-ray emitting active regions.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal; vol. 267
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: X-ray spectra of GX 339-4 measured on three occasions in 1977 and 1978 are presented. These are the first reported measurements above 10 keV. The spectra can be described as the superposition of a soft component, which is dominant below about 20 keV, and a hard component at higher energy. Simultaneous measurements at lower energy show that the soft component vanished during the observation in early 1978. The behavior of these two components is similar to that of the spectrum of Cygnus X-1; this reinforces the previously noted resemblance in rapid X-ray variability.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal; vol. 262
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: The 1.24-sec pulsations of Her X-1 in the energy range 13-75 keV have been analyzed in data obtained from the UCSD/MIT experiment on HEAO 1 during observations of the source on three dates in February 1978 and three in August 1978. Observational results are (1) the main pulse broadens somewhat with increasing energy; (2) the pulsation light curve undergoes pronounced changes at the leading edge of the main pulse from day to day; (3) spectral hardening within the main pulse is confirmed; (4) a 40-60 keV spectral feature in the spectrum is confirmed; (5) this feature is resolved, the pulse width broadening is greater than 20%, and its centroid varies with pulsation phase; and (6) the 13-75 keV spectrum does not noticeably vary from day to day, except for an overall intensity factor. Some implications of these results for the prevailing models of Her X-1 and the HZ Her-Her X-1 system are briefly discussed.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal; vol. 240
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The photon number spectrum integrated over the impulsive part of the event is shown to fit a thermal bremsstrahlung function with a temperature of 330 + or - 70 keV at energies between 151 and 487 keV. At lower energies, the data points lie considerably below this function, indicating a broad absorption feature extending down to values less than or equal to 28 keV, the lowest energy measured. The upper energy of this absorption feature varies from 100 to 150 keV on a time scale less than or equal to 0.5 s. This event is interpreted as a typical gamma ray burst, even though it is still considered remotely possible that it is of solar origin. The spectral features, together with their variability, are interpreted in terms of electron interactions at the cyclotron resonance frequency in magnetic fields of 10 to the 12th - 10 to the 13th gauss close to the surface of a neutron star.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Gamma ray transients and related astrophysical phenomena; Workshop; August 5-8, 1981; La Jolla, CA
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The large-scale radial and temporal variations of the interplanetary magnetic field strength B observed by Voyagers 1 and 2 are discussed. Two components of the magnetic field strength were considered: (1) an average component, B sub zero, based on solar rotation averages, and (2) a fluctuation component, delta B, expressed by 10- or 24-hour averages of B normalized by the best-fit average field for the corresponding time and distance. Observations of the sector structure, interfaces, and shocks are presented to further describe magnetic field strength.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-86088 , NAS 1.15:86088
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Studies of the time behavior of the galactic cosmic ray intensity have concluded that long term decreases in the intensity are generally associated with systems of interplanetary flows that contain flare generated shock waves, magnetic clouds and other transient phenomena. The magnetic field power spectral signatures of such flow systems are compared to power spectra obtained during times when the solar wind is dominated by stable corotating streams that do not usually produce long-lived reduction in the cosmic ray intensity. The spectral signatures of these two types of regimes (transient and corotating) are distinct. However, the distinguishing features are not the same throughout the heliosphere. In data collected beyond 1 AU the primary differences are in the power spectra of the magnitude of the magnetic field rather than in the power in the field components. Consequently, decreases in cosmic ray intensity are very likely due to magnetic mirror forces and gradient drifts rather than to small angle scattering due to cyclotron wave-particle interactions.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.15:86051 , NASA-TM-86051
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Two time periods are studied for which comprehensive data coverage is available at both 1 AU using IMP-8 and ISEE-3 and beyond using Voyager 1. One of these periods is characterized by the predominance of corotating stream interactions. Relatively small scale transient flows characterize the second period. The evolution of these flows with heliocentric distance is studied using power spectral techniques. The evolution of the transient dominated period is consistent with the hypothesis of turbulent evolution including an inverse cascade of large scales. The evolution of the corotating period is consistent with the entrainment of slow streams by faster streams in a deterministic model.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-85116 , NAS 1.15:85116
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