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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-7160
    Keywords: captive breeding ; in situ conservation ; ex situ conservation ; zoos ; protected areas
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Abstract Growing deterministic and stochastic threats to many wild populations of large vertebrates have focused attention on the conservation significance of captive breeding and subsequent reintroduction. However, work on both gorillas and black rhinos questions this shift in emphasis. In these species, field-based conservation can be effective if properly supported and, although this is not cheap, per capita costs may still be considerably lower than for ex situ propagation in captivity. Here we attempt to broaden the scope of this debate by contrasting the breeding success and costs of in situ and captive programmes for a range of threatened mammals. Data are scarce, but we find that across nine large-bodied genera, in situ conservation achieves comparable rates of population growth to those seen in established captive breeding programmes. Moreover, comparing budgets of well-protected reserves with zoos' own estimates of maintenance costs and the costs of zoo adoption schemes, we find that per capita costs for effective in situ conservation are consistently lower than those of maintenance in captivity. Captive breeding may be more cost-effective for smaller-bodied taxa, and will often remain desirable for large mammals restricted to one or two vulnerable wild populations. However, our results, coupled with the fact that effective in situ conservation protects intact ecosystems rather than single species, lead us to suggest that zoos might maximize their contribution to large mammal conservation by investing where possible in well-managed field-based initiatives, rather than establishing additional ex situ breeding programmes.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Keywords: NONMETALLIC MATERIALS
    Type: AIAA Journal (ISSN 0001-1452); 22; 1491-149
    Format: text
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: A new code for the simulation of full (forebody and base region) flowfields about bluff bodies in the hypersonic regime of severe planetary entry is described. The present 'maximally conservative, maximally differenced' formulation of the unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations for 2-D axisymmetric 3-D flow is contrasted for stability with previous formulations of Viviand, Kutler, et al, and Thomas and Lombard. Discrete metric relations peculiar to the axisymmetric finite volume formulation are presented along with a general discussion of their relations to and consequences of failure to close computational cells. A computational mesh of curvilinear coordinate topology singular in the flow regime is presented that permits aligned capturing of the major physical features of the complex flowfield.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 80-0065 , Aerospace Sciences Meeting; Jan 14, 1980 - Jan 16, 1980; Pasadena, CA
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  • 4
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Material response solutions for the forebody heat shield on the candidate 310-kg Galileo Probe are presented. A charring material ablation analysis predicts thermochemical surface recession, insulation thickness, and total required heat shield mass. Benchmark shock layer solutions provide the imposed entry heating environments on the ablating surface. Heat shield sizing results are given for a nominal entry into modeled nominal and cool-heavy Jovian atmospheres, and for two heat-shield property models. The nominally designed heat shield requires a mass of at least 126 kg and would require an additional 13 kg to survive entry into the less probable cool-heavy atmosphere. The material-property model with a 30% surface reflectance reduces these mass requirements by as much as 16%.
    Keywords: FLUID MECHANICS AND HEAT TRANSFER
    Type: AIAA PAPER 81-1073 , Thermophysics Conference; Jun 23, 1981 - Jun 25, 1981; Palo Alto, CA
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The factored-implicit, gas-dynamic algorithm has been adapted to the numerical simulation of equilibrium reactive flows. Changes required in the perfect gas version of the algorithm are developed, and the method of coupling gas-dynamic and chemistry variables is discussed. A flow-field solution that approximates a Jovian entry case was obtained by this method and compared with the same solution obtained by HYVIS, a computer program much used for the study of planetary entry. Comparison of surface pressure distribution and stagnation line shock-layer profiles indicates that the two solutions agree well.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 81-0282 , Aerospace Sciences Meeting; Jan 12, 1981 - Jan 15, 1981; St. Louis, MO
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: The stagnation-point ablation rates of a graphite, a carbon-carbon composite, and four carbon-phenolic materials are measured in an arc-jet wind tunnel with a 50% hydrogen-50% helium mixture as the test gas. Flow environments are determined through measurements of static and impact pressures, heat-transfer rates to a calorimeter, and radiation spectra, and through numerical calculation of the flow through the wind tunnel, spectra, and heat-transfer rates. The environments so determined are: impact pressure approx. 3 atm, Mach number approx. 2.1, convective heat-transfer rate approx. 14 kw/sq cm, and radiative heat-transfer rate approx. 7 kw/sq cm in the absence of ablation. Ablation rates are determined from the measured rates of mass loss and recession of the ablation specimens. Compared with the predicted ablation rates obtained by running RASLE and CMA codes, the measured rates are higher by about 15% for all tested materials.
    Keywords: SPACECRAFT DESIGN, TESTING AND PERFORMANCE
    Type: NASA-TM-84346 , A-9286 , NAS 1.15:84346
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: This paper presents thermal protection system (TPS) requirements for a potential Titan aerocapture vehicle. Shock-layer solutions are obtained for a nominal trajectory through the current Titan model atmosphere. Fully laminar and fully turbulent solutions are presented along the blunted fore-cone in the windward symmetry plane of a bent-biconic vehicle. Using these solutions to define the aerothermodynamic environment, transient material-response solutions are obtained for a Galileo-type TPS with a carbon-phenolic ablator heat shield. Shock-layer results indicate that turbulent flow is the more realistic flow condition. They also show that the lengthy aerocapture heating pulse is dominated by convective heating. The TPS results show that the required insulation thickness is uniformly about 4 cm along the fore-cone because of the long heat-soak period. The total heat-shield thickness is 6.4 cm at the stagnation point, and 4.7 cm near the end of the fore-cone. These TPS requirements are greater than those presented in a previous Titan aerocapture study.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 84-1714
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: The stagnation-point ablation rates of a graphite, a carbon-carbon composite, and four carbon-phenolic materials are measured in an arc-jet wind tunnel with a 50 percent hydrogen-50 percent helium mixture as the test gas. Flow environments are determined through measurements of static and impact pressures, heat-transfer rates to a calorimeter, and radiation spectra, and through numerical calculation of the flow through the wind tunnel, spectra, and heat-transfer rates. The environments so determined are: impact pressure approximately equal to 3 atm, Mach number approximately equal to 2.1, convective heat-transfer rate approximately equal to 14 kW/sq cm, and radiative heat-transfer rate approximately equal to 7 kW/sq cm in the absence of ablation. Ablation rates are determined from the measured rates of mass loss and recession of the ablation specimens. Compared with the predicted ablation rates obtained by running RASLE and CMA codes, the measured rates are higher by about 15 percent for all tested materials.
    Keywords: NONMETALLIC MATERIALS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 83-1561
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: The Space Shuttle Orbiter Experiments program in responsible for collecting flight data to extend the research and technology base for future aerospace vehicle design. The Infrared Imagery of Shuttle (IRIS), Catalytic Surface Effects, and Tile Gap Heating experiments sponsored by Ames Research Center are part of this program. The paper describes the software required to process the flight data which support these experiments. In addition, data analysis techniques, developed in support of the IRIS experiment, are discussed. Using the flight data base, the techniques have provided information useful in analyzing and correcting problems with the experiment, and in interpreting the IRIS image obtained during the entry of the third Shuttle mission.
    Keywords: SPACE TRANSPORTATION
    Type: AIAA PAPER 83-1532
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: The space shuttle orbiter experiments program is responsible for collecting flight data to extend the research and technology base for future aerospace vehicle design. The infrared imagery of shuttle (IRIS), catalytic surface effects, and tile gap heating experiments sponsored by Ames Research Center are part of this program. The software required to process the flight data which support these experiments is described. In addition, data analysis techniques, developed in support of the IRIS experiment, are discussed. Using the flight data base, the techniques provide information useful in analyzing and correcting problems with the experiment, and in interpreting the IRIS image obtained during the entry of the third shuttle mission.
    Keywords: SPACECRAFT DESIGN, TESTING AND PERFORMANCE
    Type: NASA-TM-84345 , A-9289 , NAS 1.15:84345
    Format: application/pdf
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