Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
The ability of the herbicide safeners, BAS-145138 (1-dichloroacetyl-hexahydro-3,3,8a-trimethyl-pyrrolo(1,2a)pyrimidin-6(2H)-one), dichlormid (N,N-diallyl-2,2-dichloroacetamide), flurazole (phenylmethyl ester), and MG-191 (2-dichloromelhyl-2-methyl-1,3-dioxolane) for preventing metazachlor injury to maize (Zea mays L.) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) seedlings were compared with their effects on 14C-metazachlor metabolism to a glutathione (GSH) conjugate, effects on non-protein thiol contents (mainly GSH) and effects on Glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity in these two species.Sorghum shoot growth was reduced by 41% and maize shoot growth was reduced by 54%, by metazachlor concentrations in vermiculite nutrient culture of 0·6 μM and 7·5μM, respectively. In this system, all four compounds had significant activity as safeners for metazachlor in both sorghum and maize seedlings. BAS-145138 and flurazole were the most effective safeners in maize and sorghum, respectively. In the absence of safeners, the rate of non-enzymatic conjugation of metazachlor and GSH was much greater than the enzymatic rate. However, the rate of enzymatic conjugation of metazachlor with GSH was increased by safener treatment in both maize and sorghum. Safener effectiveness was highly correlated with increases in 14C-metazachlor uptake and metabolism in both species. Safener effectiveness was more highly correlated with safener effects on GST activity in maize or sorghum when 14C-metazachlor was used as the substrate than when the non-specific CDNB (1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene) was used as the substrate. Safener effectiveness was also strongly correlated with safener effects on GSH levels in sorghum, but not in maize, possibly because of the greater importance of non-enzymatic conjugation of metazachlor with GSH in sorghum as compared to maize.
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